القرآن والحديث والعلماء: العنصرية
تدعو العديد من آيات القرآن والأحاديث النبوية إلى المساواة بين جميع الشعوب في الإسلام. ومع ذلك ، في الوقت نفسه ، تحتوي الكتب الإسلامية على التحريض ضد اليهود والذي يعتبر اليوم معاداة للسامية (تمت تغطيته في مقال منفصل) ، ويتم إعطاء العرب ولغتهم مكانة أعلى في نظر الله والتقاليد. الأوصاف المهينة للسود ، الإثيوبيين على وجه الخصوص ، يمكن العثور عليها أيضًا في الأحاديث الصحيحة. علاوة على ذلك ، تم العثور على العنصرية العلنية ضد السود والعربية في أعمال العديد من العلماء المسلمين المرموقين. الكل في الكل صورة العرق وما يمكن أن يسمى "العلاقات العرقية" معقدة في التقاليد الإسلامية.
مناهذضة العنصرية في التقليد الإسلامي
هذه المواورد تقوم بموضع العنصرية بشكل عام وبعضها مناهضة للعنصرية بشكل عام, أما كره اليهود فله مقالة خاصة.
أسباب النزول لهذه الآية حسب الواحدي تحكي حكياة رجل سب نسل رجل آخر, وأيضا لما اشتكى واحد بشكل عنصري ان بلال (وهو أسود) قد أذن بالصلاة:
في حديث متدرج صحيح من قبل الألباني قال النبي محمد هكذا بخطبة حجة الوداع:
في حديث صحيح ينتقد النبي سب النسل والاستكبار بالنسل, وقد يعني هذا القول ان حتى الإستكبار بالقبيلة والجنسية حرام.
للأسف كما يروى ببقية المقالة تقوض هذه الأفكار بعض الأحاديث الصحيحة الأخرى التي تميز ضد بعض الجماعات العرقية العربية والتي تصف الناس السود بشكل سيء. بالإضافة إلى ذلك, هناك الكثير من النصوص الإسلامية الكلاسيكية كما المعاصرة التي ترفع أفكار عنصرية للغاية.
العنصر والقبيلة في التقليد الإسلامي
لماذا خلق الله الإنسان قبيلة وقوما
ذُرِّيَّةًۢ بَعْضُهَا مِنۢ بَعْضٍ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
وَقَالُوا۟ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌۢ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ كِتَٰبٌ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا۟ كَفَرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ بِئْسَمَا ٱشْتَرَوْا۟ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ ۚ وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌوَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم
في الحديث والسرة
تفوق العرب, القريش, وبني هاشم
" مَنْ غَشَّ الْعَرَبَ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ فِي شَفَاعَتِي وَلَمْ تَنَلْهُ مَوَدَّتِي " . قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ حُصَيْنِ بْنِ عُمَرَ الأَحْمَسِيِّ عَنْ مُخَارِقٍ . وَلَيْسَ حُصَيْنٌ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ بِذَاكَ الْقَوِيِّ .
حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، وَيُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ الأَشَجِّ، عَنْ بُسْرِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ الْحَرُورِيَّةَ لَمَّا خَرَجَتْ وَهُوَ مَعَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ - رضى الله عنه - قَالُوا لاَ حُكْمَ إِلاَّ لِلَّهِ . قَالَ عَلِيٌّ كَلِمَةُ حَقٍّ أُرِيدَ بِهَا بَاطِلٌ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَصَفَ نَاسًا إِنِّي لأَعْرِفُ صِفَتَهُمْ فِي هَؤُلاَءِ
" يَقُولُونَ الْحَقَّ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ لاَ يَجُوزُ هَذَا مِنْهُمْ - وَأَشَارَ إِلَى حَلْقِهِ - مِنْ أَبْغَضِ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ إِلَيْهِ مِنْهُمْ أَسْوَدُ إِحْدَى يَدَيْهِ طُبْىُ شَاةٍ أَوْ حَلَمَةُ ثَدْىٍ " . فَلَمَّا قَتَلَهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ - رضى الله عنه - قَالَ انْظُرُوا . فَنَظَرُوا فَلَمْ يَجِدُوا شَيْئًا فَقَالَ ارْجِعُوا فَوَاللَّهِ مَا كَذَبْتُ وَلاَ كُذِبْتُ . مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثًا ثُمَّ وَجَدُوهُ فِي خَرِبَةٍ فَأَتَوْا بِهِ حَتَّى وَضَعُوهُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ . قَالَ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ وَأَنَا حَاضِرُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ . وَقَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ فِيهِمْ زَادَ يُونُسُ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ قَالَ بُكَيْرٌ وَحَدَّثَنِي رَجُلٌ عَنِ ابْنِ حُنَيْنٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ ذَلِكَ الأَسْوَدَ .
التسلسلات الهرمية الأخرى والقبائل والعناصر
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ قَتَادَةَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي أُسَيْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم
" خَيْرُ دُورِ الأَنْصَارِ دُورُ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ ثُمَّ دُورُ بَنِي عَبْدِ الأَشْهَلِ ثُمَّ بَنِي الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْخَزْرَجِ ثُمَّ بَنِي سَاعِدَةَ وَفِي كُلِّ دُورِ الأَنْصَارِ خَيْرٌ " . فَقَالَ سَعْدٌ مَا أَرَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلاَّ قَدْ فَضَّلَ عَلَيْنَا . فَقِيلَ قَدْ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ . وَأَبُو أُسَيْدٍ السَّاعِدِيُّ اسْمُهُ مَالِكُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ . وَقَدْ رُوِيَ نَحْوُ هَذَا عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم . وَرَوَاهُ مَعْمَرٌ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ وَعُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم .
" أَتَاكُمْ أَهْلُ الْيَمَنِ هُمْ أَضْعَفُ قُلُوبًا وَأَرَقُّ أَفْئِدَةً الإِيمَانُ يَمَانٍ وَالْحِكْمَةُ يَمَانِيَةٌ " . وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبِي مَسْعُودٍ . وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ .
العنصر والقبيلة في الشريعة الإسلامية
الكفاءة في الزواج
“And Kafaah in lineage. Thus the Quraysh are suitable matches for one another as are the (other) Arabs suitable matches for one another.”The ruling relevant to non-Arabs is as follows: ‘An Ajmi (non-Arab) cannot be a match for a woman of Arab descent, no matter that he be an Aalim (religious scholar) or even a Sultan (ruling authority)‘. (Raddul Muhtar p.209 v.4)
جرم الخطأ المتعمد بالتعريف العنصري
I [Sahnun] said: What if he said to an Arab man, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’ or ‘Oh Persian!’ or ‘Oh Roman!’ or ‘Oh Berber!’? Will the hadd [referring to the hadd punishment known as hadd al-firyah – that is, the punishment of 80 lashes for slander] be implemented according to Malik?
He [Ibn al-Qasim, Imam Malik’s companion for twenty years] said: Yes [the hadd will be implemented].
I said: What if he said to a non-Arab [mawla], ‘Oh Persian!’, while he is a Roman? Or he said to a Berber, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’ or ‘Oh Persian!’? Or he said to a Persian, ‘Oh Roman!’ or ‘Oh Nabatean!’? Will the hadd be implemented in this case according to Imam Malik or not?
He said: Malik said: When it is said to a Persian, ‘Oh Roman!’, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’, or something similar, then there is no hadd with regard to this. And it was differed upon about Malik regarding whether or not the one who says to the Roman or Berber, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’ would have the hadd upon him. And I think that there is no hadd upon him [the criminal] except if he says to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’ while he [the victim] is white. If there are among his [the victim’s] forefathers none who are black, then the hadd is implemented. And if he [the criminal] described him [the victim] as an Ethiopian, saying, ‘Oh son of an Ethiopian!’, and he [the victim] was a Berber, then the Ethiopian and the Roman [descriptions] in this case are the same [that is,] if he [the victim] was a Berber – and it [i.e. this ruling] is the best of what I have heard from the speech of Malik. And it [i.e. this ruling] was confirmed with me unless it were said to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’, for that would be clear slander if there were no black person among his forefathers.
I said: What if he said to a Persian or Berber, ‘Oh Arab!’ He said: There is no hadd upon him in this case.
I said: What if he said to an Arab, ‘Oh Qurayshi!’, or to a man of Mudar [the tribe], ‘Oh Yemeni!’, or said to a man from Yemen, ‘Oh Mudari’ He said: I see all of this as the cutting-off of lineage, and I think that it warrants the hadd just as Malik says regarding the cutting-off of lineage [a different hadd punishment than the 80-lashes hadd punishment for slander – i.e. lying about lineage (“cutting off lineage”, or qatt al-nasab) is not necessarily slander (qadhf), while saying someone is the “son of a black person” or describing an Arab as a non-Arab is], because the Arab’s lineage is traced through his forefathers, so whoever attributes him [the Arab] to other than his forefathers has done away with his [the Arab’s] lineage, [and] thus the hadd is upon him. […]
I said: And if he said to an Arab, ‘You are not from the Arabs’, will he not suffer the hadd according to Malik? He said: Yes [the criminal will suffer the hadd]. […]
Chapter: He said to a man, ‘Oh son of a disabled person!’ or ‘Oh son of a black person!’ […]
I said: What if he [the criminal] said to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a cupper!’ [one who conducts cupping therapy] or, ‘Oh son of a tailor!’ He said: Malik said: If he [the victim] is an Arab, then the hadd is implemented unless there is among his [the victim’s] forefathers someone who did that type of work. Malik said: And if he [the victim] is a non-Arab, I hold that he [the criminal] should swear by Allah that he did not intend thereby the cutting-off of lineage, and there is no hadd upon him, and upon him is the tazeer [i.e. some other discretionary punishment decided by the judge – these punishments are not allowed to exceed 40 lashes]. I said: why is it [the ruling] differentiated in this [case] between the Arab and the non-Arab? He said: Because they [i.e. cupping and tailoring] are the work of the non-Arabs.
I said: And if he [the criminal] said to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’ He said: The hadd will be implemented upon him according to Malik if he [the victim] was an Arab or a non-Arab unless there is a black person among his forefathers. […]
Chapter: Regarding he who said to a white man, ‘Oh son of a black person’ or ‘Oh one blind in an eye!’ and he is healthy [i.e. not blind] […]
I said: What about the man who says to an Arab, ‘Oh non-Arab!’ Is he punished with the hadd or not according to Malik? He said: Yes [the criminal is punished with the hadd]. I said: What about the man who says to an Arab, ‘Oh slave!’ Is he punished with the hadd or not according to Malik? He said: Yes [the criminal is punished with the hadd].
I said: What if he said to a non-Arab, ‘Oh slave!’ - will he be lashed according to the hadd or not according to Malik? He said: I do not remember it [i.e. the ruling] from Malik, but I hold that there is no hadd upon him. […]
Chapter: Regarding the one who was slandered and then left Islam
I said: What if I [Sahnun, being a criminal] slandered a man and then that man [the victim] left Islam, thereafter returned to Islam, and then demanded of [i.e. against] me the hadd [that it should be imparted against Sahnun] - Would you smite [i.e. lash] me for him or not? He said: There is no hadd upon his [the revert’s] slanderer [i.e. the criminal].He, Ibn al-Qasim, said: If he [the criminal] slandered him, and then he [the criminal] left Islam, or if he [the criminal] slandered him while he [the criminal] was an apostate [murtad], then the hadd would be implemented against him [the criminal] while he [the criminal] was an apostate – and if he [the criminal] repented [i.e. returned to Islam], then the hadd would be implemented against him [the criminal] just as well. And if someone [being a criminal] slandered him [the victim] while he [the victim] was an apostate, and then he [the victim] repented, then there would be no hadd upon him [the criminal]. And if someone [being a criminal] slandered him [the victim] before he [the victim] apostatized, and then he [the victim] apostatized, then there is no hadd upon the slanderer [i.e. the criminal] if he [the victim] repents [i.e. returns to Islam] – and indeed this is similar to the case of a man who was slandered with [the accusation of] zina [fornication/adultery] but was not taken thus for the hadd [i.e. not punished or prosecuted] until he [the victim] [actually] committed zina [fornication/adultery], for then [also] there is no hadd upon whoever slandered him.
العنصر والقبيلة في العقيدة الإسلامية
The superiority of Arabism is a superiority of class [jins] and not individual, for the devout and pious non-Arab is better than the Arab who is negligent about the truth of Allah. Also, the superiority of Arabism is choice from Allah almighty. It is possible that the wisdom behind this is apparent to us, and it is also possible that the wisdom behind this is not apparent to us – except that there are in the Arab those attributes and faults that indicate the face of this preference. […]
He [Ibn Taymiyyah], Allah have mercy upon him, said: “That which the Sunnis believe is that the Arab race is superior to the non-Arab race: their Hebrews, Syriacs, Romans, Persians, and others.
“The Quraysh are the most of superior of the Arabs, the Bani Hashim are the most superior of the Quraysh, and the messenger of Allah is the most superior of the Bani Hashim, for he is the most superior creation as an individual and the most superior among them in lineage.
“Also, the superiority of the Arab, then the Quraysh, and then the Bani Hashim is not merely due to the existence of the prophet among them – even if this is part of their superiority. Rather, they are superior in and of themselves. Thus, the messenger of Allah is proven to be superior in person and lineage, otherwise circularity is necessitated. […]
“This is why it has come in a hadith: ‘Love of the Arab is faith [iman], and hatred for them is hypocrisy’. […]
“And know that the hadiths regarding the superiority of the Quraysh and then the superiority of Bani Hashim are many - this is not the place for listing them - and they indicate this matter as well, for the Quraysh are to the Arabs as the Arabs are to humankind. And this is how the Sharia came. […]
“The reason for this superiority – and Allah knows best – is what they have been favored with in their intellects, tongues, morals, and deeds, and that is because superiority is either by beneficial knowledge or righteous deeds. Also, knowledge has a basis, and that is the strength of the intellect – that is in memorization and understanding; perfection also, and that is in the power of logic – that is in explanation and expression. And the Arabs are better at understanding than others, better preserved, and more capable of explanation and expression. And their tongue is the most perfect of tongues in explanation, at differentiating different and similar meanings, and combines many meanings in a few words.
“And as for deed, this is based on morals, which are based on natural instincts in the soul. And their instincts are more obedient to the good than those of others, for they are closest to generosity, gentleness, courage, loyalty, and other such praiseworthy moral traits.” End.Iqtida Sirat al-Mustaqim p. 148-162
So this hadith is a primary text about the preference of Arabs over others and the preference of some Arabs over other Arabs. And this is what the Imams have chosen from the………of their books, and even in individual books such as the book of Qurb about the merit of Arabs, authored by the great Imam al-Hafiz Zayn al-din al-`Iraqi. And it was summarized by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami and others.
Therefore the preference of Arabs over other nations, and the preference of some Arabs over other Arabs is affirmed in the Sacred Law. Allah has even preferred some months over other months and some days and nights of over others, as well as places. So in the same way, Allah Glorious and Exalted is He, has chosen some men over others, such as the prophets over others and even some prophets over other prophets. Muslims should not have any objection to this, because all of this returns to the wisdom of the Most Wise, Glorious is He, who is not asked about what He does, but rather, they are the ones who are asked. So after a Muslim has believed in Allah as his Lord, the Truth, and that there is no God but Him, then he should know that this is from among His matters, Blessed and High is He, and there is nothing but magnificent wisdom in it that we might see or that we might not see. Either way, we are only responsible for submitting to His rule, Glorious is He. And among His rulings is that Arabs are preferred over others and that some Arabs are better than other Arabs, as the above hadith clearly explained. So it is not appropriate for anyone to disagree in this when the proof is perfectly valid.
And there should be no disagreement in what has just preceded nor any disagreement in what appears in the Magnificent Book and in the sunna where we find that the real source of Allah’s preference is God-fearingness (taqwa) which result in the good deeds that people earn and that they are accounted for. So whoever sends forth good for himself, Allah has preferred him over those who have sent forth evil. As for the preference of an Arab over a non-Arab, and the preference of some Arabs over others, this is not a deed that one can earn. Rather, it is a bounty that Allah gives to whom He wills. So he may will something for these people, and there is no objection to your Lord’s rule. This is like the preference of some days over others, because the mind reasons that all days are the same in and of themselves, and there is no distinction that might appear between them. However, the mind can understand why something is better if there is not ……….. So the Sacred law came and affirmed the preference of some over others, and for some of those things there were reasons and wisdoms, such as the preference of the night of Power over others because the Majestic Qur’an was revealed during it. And in some of these things, the wisdom is not apparent to us and so this falls into the chapter of absolute obedience, such as the number of cycles (rak`ahs) in the prayer.
It is obligatory on a Muslim to believe that Arabs are preferred over other nations because there is a proof for it. However, this is not one of the pillars of our religion such that if someone rejected this, they would be considered outside of Islam. But if one does reject this, one has sinned for not believing in it because it is an affirmed matter according to a clear rigorously authenticated hadith. Also, this issue is not something that is commonly known among most Muslims, so for this, one should not hasten to blame one who disagrees with it. It is necessary, rather, to tell him about the issue.
And the fact that Arabs are preferred over others does not mean that a non-Arab can not have a higher merit in the religion than an Arab, because a person earns the good deeds that Allah has recommended we compete for. This is the highest merit of God-fearingness and this will be the basis upon which things are decided in the hereafter. However, the merit of the Arabs will still remain, in terms of their respect and exaltation being higher than others. And from this some hadiths have come to us about the Quraysh being put first for the caliphate before others, such as the hadith in Bukhari (#3500) on the authority of Mu`awiyah, may Allah be well pleased with him who said, ” I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘This matter of government belongs to the Quraysh. Anyone who takes a hostile attitude to them will be thrown on his face, as long as they are true to the faith.” And Bukhari also related (#3501) on the authority of Ibn `Umar from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, that he said, “Government continues to belong to the Quraysh, even if they are (no more than) two.”So I say that the merit of God-fearingness is what counts, according to the rigorously authenticated hadith, “And he who is slow in doing good deeds, his noble lineage will not quicken him (into entering Paradise).
العلماء ولافقهاء المسلمون على العنصر والقبيلة
كان ابن قتيبة عالم مشهور من كوفة في العراق
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201-1274), was a Shia Muslim Scholar and Grand Ayatollah كان محمد ابن محمد ابن حسن طوسی عالما شيعيا وآية الله
كان المقدسي جغرافيا مسلما في العصور الوصطى.
Al-Masudi (896-956), was a Muslim historian and geographer, known as the "Herodotus of the Arabs."
كان ابن الفقيه مؤرخا وجغرافيا مسلما في العصور الوصطى.
كان أبو ريحان البروني عالما مسلما ومتعدد الثقافات مسلما
Hudud al-`Alam is a book dedicated to Abu l-Ḥārith Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, a ruler of the local Farighunid dynasty. كان حدود العلم مكتوب لآبو الحريث محمد بن أحمد, قائد في المملكة آل فريغون.
كان الجاحظ (781–869) عالما مسلما مشهورا
كان ابن أبي زيد القيرواني عالما مالكا مشهورا من القيروان في تونس
al-Ibshihi (1388–1446), Egyptian scholar who wrote an encyclopedia covering Islamic law, theology, mysticism, and some other topics.}}
Shams al-Dīn Muhammad b. Abī Talib al-Dimashqī (1256-1327), Damascene Imam who wrote on many topics.
Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) Muslim scholar and traveler who wrote about his journeys across the world.
Al-Idrisi (1100-1165), Muslim geographer, writer, scientist, cartographer from Almoravid Spain.
Said al-Andalusi (1029-1070) was an Arab qadhi (Islamic judge) living in al-Andalus, Spain who wrote on the history of science and philosophy.
Ibn Hazm (994-1064) was an Andalusian polymath who wrote on history, Islamic law, Islamic theology, philosophy, and is especially well regarded for his study of the hadiths.
al-Kirmani (996-1021) was a famous Persian Ismaili theologian and philosopher.
al-Mutannabi (915-965) was a famous Abbasid court poet from Iraq and one of the most influential poets in the history of Arabic.
Qadi Iyad (108301149) was one of the most famous Maliki jurists, also an Imam and qadi in Granada under the Almoravid dynasty.
Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (897-967) was an Arab litterateur, genealogist, poet, and musicologist.
University Press, pp. 92-99, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990
- Ibn Sa'd, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad. Kitab al-Tabaqat, vol i. Translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan, 1784, Kalan Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972, p12.
- Lane’s Lexicon عروبة
- West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era
- Comparative Digests Racism Arab and European Compared - Nathaniel Turner
- قالب:Cite book
- The Risala of 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani/ 43.16 Trading abroad - A Treatise on Maliki Fiqh (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dani by al-Azhari)(310/922 - 386/996)