القرآن والحديث والعلماء: العنصرية

من ویکی اسلام
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تدعو العديد من آيات القرآن والأحاديث النبوية إلى المساواة بين جميع الشعوب في الإسلام. ومع ذلك ، في الوقت نفسه ، تحتوي الكتب الإسلامية على التحريض ضد اليهود والذي يعتبر اليوم معاداة للسامية (تمت تغطيته في مقال منفصل) ، ويتم إعطاء العرب ولغتهم مكانة أعلى في نظر الله والتقاليد. الأوصاف المهينة للسود ، الإثيوبيين على وجه الخصوص ، يمكن العثور عليها أيضًا في الأحاديث الصحيحة. علاوة على ذلك ، تم العثور على العنصرية العلنية ضد السود والعربية في أعمال العديد من العلماء المسلمين المرموقين. الكل في الكل صورة العرق وما يمكن أن يسمى "العلاقات العرقية" معقدة في التقاليد الإسلامية.

مناهذضة العنصرية في التقليد الإسلامي

هذه المواورد تقوم بموضع العنصرية بشكل عام وبعضها مناهضة للعنصرية بشكل عام, أما كره اليهود فله مقالة خاصة.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَٰكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
أسباب النزول لهذه الآية حسب الواحدي تحكي حكياة رجل سب نسل رجل آخر, وأيضا لما اشتكى واحد بشكل عنصري ان بلال (وهو أسود) قد أذن بالصلاة:
(O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female") [49:13]. Said Ibn 'Abbas: "This was revealed about Thabit ibn Qays when he made a remark about the man who did not make room for him to sit: 'What, the son of so-and-so [referring to his mother]'. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said: 'Who mentioned that woman?' Thabit stood up and said: 'I did, O Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger said to him: 'Look at the faces of those present'. And when he looked, he asked him: 'What do you see?' He said: 'I see white, red and black people'. The Prophet said: 'Well, you are not better than any of them unless it be through [the good practice of] religion and God-fearingness'. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed this verse". Muqatil said: "On the day Mecca was conquered, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, ordered Bilal to climb on the roof of the Ka'bah and perform the call to prayer. 'Attab ibn Asid commented on this: 'Praise be to Allah, that Allah has taken my father to Him and made that he did not see this day'. Al-Harith ibn Hisham said: 'Did Muhammad not find any other caller to prayer except this black raven?' Suhayl ibn 'Amr said: 'Allah willing, he will change him'. Abu Sufyan, on the other hand, said: 'I am not going to make any comment; I am afraid that the Lord of heaven will divulge what I say!' Gabriel, peace be upon him, went to the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace, and informed him about what they said. The Prophet summoned them and asked them about what they said and they admitted it. Allah, exalted is He, then revealed this verse warning them against boasting about their lineages and abundance of wealth and against looking down on the poor".

في حديث متدرج صحيح من قبل الألباني[١] قال النبي محمد هكذا بخطبة حجة الوداع:

عَنْ أَبِي نَضْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي وَسَطِ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ فَقَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَلَا إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّ أَبَاكُمْ وَاحِدٌ أَلَا لَا فَضْلَ لِعَرَبِيٍّ عَلَى أَعْجَمِيٍّ وَلَا لِعَجَمِيٍّ عَلَى عَرَبِيٍّ وَلَا لِأَحْمَرَ عَلَى أَسْوَدَ وَلَا أَسْوَدَ عَلَى أَحْمَرَ إِلَّا بِالتَّقْوَى أَبَلَّغْتُ قَالُوا بَلَّغَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

في حديث صحيح ينتقد النبي سب النسل والاستكبار بالنسل, وقد يعني هذا القول ان حتى الإستكبار بالقبيلة والجنسية حرام.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَفَّانُ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، ح وَحَدَّثَنِي إِسْحَاقُ، بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ - وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ - أَخْبَرَنَا حَبَّانُ بْنُ هِلاَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبَانٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، أَنَّ زَيْدًا، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا سَلاَّمٍ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ أَبَا مَالِكٍ الأَشْعَرِيَّ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ أَرْبَعٌ فِي أُمَّتِي مِنْ أَمْرِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ لاَ يَتْرُكُونَهُنَّ الْفَخْرُ فِي الأَحْسَابِ وَالطَّعْنُ فِي الأَنْسَابِ وَالاِسْتِسْقَاءُ بِالنُّجُومِ وَالنِّيَاحَةُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ‏"‏ النَّائِحَةُ إِذَا لَمْ تَتُبْ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهَا تُقَامُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَعَلَيْهَا سِرْبَالٌ مِنْ قَطِرَانٍ وَدِرْعٌ مِنْ جَرَبٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
للأسف كما يروى ببقية المقالة تقوض هذه الأفكار بعض الأحاديث الصحيحة الأخرى التي تميز ضد بعض الجماعات العرقية العربية والتي تصف الناس السود بشكل سيء. بالإضافة إلى ذلك, هناك الكثير من النصوص الإسلامية الكلاسيكية كما المعاصرة التي ترفع أفكار عنصرية للغاية.

العنصر والقبيلة في التقليد الإسلامي

في القرآن

لماذا خلق الله الإنسان قبيلة وقوما

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَٰكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَآئِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتْقَىٰكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ

النسل المختار

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصْطَفَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ وَنُوحًا وَءَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَءَالَ عِمْرَٰنَ عَلَى ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ

ذُرِّيَّةًۢ بَعْضُهَا مِنۢ بَعْضٍ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ


البدو

ٱلْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًا وَنِفَاقًا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا۟ حُدُودَ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
قَالَتِ ٱلْأَعْرَابُ ءَامَنَّا ۖ قُل لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا۟ وَلَٰكِن قُولُوٓا۟ أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ ٱلْإِيمَٰنُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ لَا يَلِتْكُم مِّنْ أَعْمَٰلِكُمْ شَيْـًٔا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

اليهود

يَٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتِىَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّى فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ
وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱعْتَدَوْا۟ مِنكُمْ فِى ٱلسَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا۟ قِرَدَةً خَٰسِـِٔينَ
قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ مِّن ذَٰلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنْهُمُ ٱلْقِرَدَةَ وَٱلْخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّٰغُوتَ ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ شَرٌّ مَّكَانًا وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ بِٱلرُّسُلِ ۖ وَءَاتَيْنَا عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ وَأَيَّدْنَٰهُ بِرُوحِ ٱلْقُدُسِ ۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَآءَكُمْ رَسُولٌۢ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰٓ أَنفُسُكُمُ ٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ

وَقَالُوا۟ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌۢ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ كِتَٰبٌ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا۟ كَفَرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ بِئْسَمَا ٱشْتَرَوْا۟ بِهِۦٓ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ فَبَآءُو بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ ۚ وَلِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ نُؤْمِنُ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَآءَهُۥ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنۢبِيَآءَ ٱللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم

مُّؤْمِنِين


فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَٰقَهُمْ لَعَنَّٰهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا قُلُوبَهُمْ قَٰسِيَةً ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِۦ ۙ وَنَسُوا۟ حَظًّا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۚ وَلَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلَىٰ خَآئِنَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۖ فَٱعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَٱصْفَحْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَ


يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلرَّسُولُ لَا يَحْزُنكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُسَٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلْكُفْرِ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا بِأَفْوَٰهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِن قُلُوبُهُمْ ۛ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوا۟ ۛ سَمَّٰعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّٰعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ ءَاخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلْكَلِمَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِۦ ۖ يَقُولُونَ إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَٰذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْتَوْهُ فَٱحْذَرُوا۟ ۚ وَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ فِتْنَتَهُۥ فَلَن تَمْلِكَ لَهُۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًٔا ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ ۚ لَهُمْ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا خِزْىٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ سَمَّٰعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ أَكَّٰلُونَ لِلسُّحْتِ ۚ فَإِن جَآءُوكَ فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُمْ أَوْ أَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ فَلَن يَضُرُّوكَ شَيْـًٔا ۖ وَإِنْ حَكَمْتَ فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِٱلْقِسْطِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُقْسِطِينَ
وَقَالَتِ ٱلْيَهُودُ يَدُ ٱللَّهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ ۚ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُوا۟ بِمَا قَالُوا۟ ۘ بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ ۚ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَٰنًا وَكُفْرًا ۚ وَأَلْقَيْنَا بَيْنَهُمُ ٱلْعَدَٰوَةَ وَٱلْبَغْضَآءَ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ ۚ كُلَّمَآ أَوْقَدُوا۟ نَارًا لِّلْحَرْبِ أَطْفَأَهَا ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَسَادًا ۚ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُفْسِدِينَ
وَقَضَيْنَآ إِلَىٰ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ لَتُفْسِدُنَّ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَتَعْلُنَّ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا
قُلْ يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوٓا۟ إِن زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ لِلَّهِ مِن دُونِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا۟ ٱلْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَٰدِقِينَ

في الحديث والسرة

أخمية الأصل

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ، عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ يَعْمَرَ، أَنَّ أَبَا الأَسْوَدِ الدِّيلِيَّ، حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أَبِي ذَرٍّ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ "‏ لَيْسَ مِنْ رَجُلٍ ادَّعَى لِغَيْرِ أَبِيهِ وَهْوَ يَعْلَمُهُ إِلاَّ كَفَرَ، وَمَنِ ادَّعَى قَوْمًا لَيْسَ لَهُ فِيهِمْ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ ‏"

الأصول العنصرية

حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ الْعَقَدِيُّ، - بَصْرِيٌّ - حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي عَرُوبَةَ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ سَمُرَةَ بْنِ جُنْدَبٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ "‏ سَامٌ أَبُو الْعَرَبِ وَيَافِثُ أَبُو الرُّومِ وَحَامٌ أَبُو الْحَبَشِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ ‏.‏ وَيُقَالُ يَافِثُ وَيَافِتُ وَيَفِثُ ‏.‏

المساوة العنصرية

حدثنا إسماعيل حدثنا سعيد الجريري عن أبي نضرة حدثني من سمع خطبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في وسط أيام التشريق فقال يا أيها الناس ألا إن ربكم واحد وإن أباكم واحد ألا لا فضل لعربي على أعجمي ولا لعجمي على عربي ولا لأحمر على أسود ولا أسود على أحمر إلا بالتقوى أبلغت قالوا بلغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم قال أي يوم هذا قالوا يوم حرام ثم قال أي شهر هذا قالوا شهر حرام قال ثم قال أي بلد هذا قالوا بلد حرام قال فإن الله قد حرم بينكم دماءكم وأموالكم قال ولا أدري قال أو أعراضكم أم لا كحرمة يومكم هذا في شهركم هذا في بلدكم هذا أبلغت قالوا بلغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ليبلغ الشاهد الغائب
حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ الْعَقَدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ "‏ لَيَنْتَهِيَنَّ أَقْوَامٌ يَفْتَخِرُونَ بِآبَائِهِمُ الَّذِينَ مَاتُوا إِنَّمَا هُمْ فَحْمُ جَهَنَّمَ أَوْ لَيَكُونَنَّ أَهْوَنَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنَ الْجُعَلِ الَّذِي يُدَهْدِهُ الْخِرَاءَ بِأَنْفِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَذْهَبَ عَنْكُمْ عُبِّيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ تَقِيٌّ وَفَاجِرٌ شَقِيٌّ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ بَنُو آدَمَ وَآدَمُ خُلِقَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ‏".‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏

التخصص العنصري

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مَنِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ حُبَابٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَرْيَمَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم "‏ الْمُلْكُ فِي قُرَيْشٍ وَالْقَضَاءُ فِي الأَنْصَارِ وَالأَذَانُ فِي الْحَبَشَةِ وَالأَمَانَةُ فِي الأَزْدِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي الْيَمَنَ ‏.‏

تفوق العرب, القريش, وبني هاشم

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مِهْرَانَ الرَّازِيُّ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَهْمٍ، جَمِيعًا عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ، - قَالَ ابْنُ مِهْرَانَ حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، - حَدَّثَنَا الأَوْزَاعِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَمَّارٍ، شَدَّادٍ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ وَاثِلَةَ بْنَ الأَسْقَعِ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ "‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَى كِنَانَةَ مِنْ وَلَدِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ وَاصْطَفَى قُرَيْشًا مِنْ كِنَانَةَ وَاصْطَفَى مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَاصْطَفَانِي مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا خَلاَّدُ بْنُ أَسْلَمَ الْبَغْدَادِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُصْعَبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الأَوْزَاعِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَمَّارٍ، عَنْ وَاثِلَةَ بْنِ الأَسْقَعِ، رضى الله عنه قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم "‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَى مِنْ وَلَدِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِسْمَاعِيلَ وَاصْطَفَى مِنْ وَلَدِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بَنِي كِنَانَةَ وَاصْطَفَى مِنْ بَنِي كِنَانَةَ قُرَيْشًا وَاصْطَفَى مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ وَاصْطَفَانِي مِنْ بَنِي هَاشِمٍ ‏" ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏

‏ ‏

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى الأَزْدِيُّ، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ مَنِيعٍ، وَغَيْرُ، وَاحِدٍ، قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَدْرٍ، شُجَاعُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ عَنْ قَابُوسِ بْنِ أَبِي ظَبْيَانَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ سَلْمَانَ، قَالَ قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ يَا سَلْمَانُ لاَ تَبْغَضْنِي فَتُفَارِقَ دِينَكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ أَبْغَضُكَ وَبِكَ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ تَبْغَضُ الْعَرَبَ فَتَبْغَضُنِي ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ أَبِي بَدْرٍ شُجَاعِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ ‏.‏ وَسَمِعْتُ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ إِسْمَاعِيلَ يَقُولُ أَبُو ظَبْيَانَ لَمْ يُدْرِكْ سَلْمَانَ مَاتَ سَلْمَانُ قَبْلَ عَلِيٍّ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ الْعَبْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الأَسْوَدِ، عَنْ حُصَيْنِ بْنِ عُمَرَ الأَحْمَسِيِّ، عَنْ مُخَارِقِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ طَارِقِ بْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏

"‏ مَنْ غَشَّ الْعَرَبَ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ فِي شَفَاعَتِي وَلَمْ تَنَلْهُ مَوَدَّتِي ‏"

‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ حُصَيْنِ بْنِ عُمَرَ الأَحْمَسِيِّ عَنْ مُخَارِقٍ ‏.‏ وَلَيْسَ حُصَيْنٌ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ بِذَاكَ الْقَوِيِّ ‏.‏
وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي حَكِيمٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، يَقُولُ كَانَ مِنْ آخِرِ مَا تَكَلَّمَ بِهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ قَالَ ‏ "‏ قَاتَلَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى اتَّخَذُوا قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ مَسَاجِدَ لاَ يَبْقَيَنَّ دِينَانِ بِأَرْضِ الْعَرَبِ ‏"
Ali Ibn Abi Talib, said: Verily the Prophet said: God divided the earth in two halves and placed (me) in the better of the two, then He divided the half in three parts, and I was in the best of them, then He chose the Arabs from among the people, then He chose the Quraysh from among the Arabs, then He chose the children of ‘Abd al-Muttalib from among the Banu Hashim, then he chose me from among the children of ‘Abd al-Muttalib, and from them he chose me.[٢]
Ibn Sa'd, Vol. 1, p. 12
"A man married a maid-slave who bore him a child. Would that child be free or would he be an owned slave?" "Her child whom she bore from him would be the property of her master according to all the Imams (heads of the four Islamic schools of law) because the child follows the (status) of his mother in freedom or slavery. If the child is not of the race of Arabs, then he is definitely an owned slave according to the scholars, but the scholars disputed (his status) among themselves if he was from the Arabs - whether he must be enslaved or not because when A'isha (Muhammad's wife) had a maid-slave who was an Arab, Muhammad said to A'isha, `Set this maid free because she is from the children of Ishmael.'"
Ibn Taymiyya, Vol. 31, pp. 376-377

القريش

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ كَانَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ مُطْعِمٍ يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّهُ بَلَغَ مُعَاوِيَةَ وَهْوَ عِنْدَهُ فِي وَفْدٍ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ يُحَدِّثُ أَنَّهُ سَيَكُونُ مَلِكٌ مِنْ قَحْطَانَ، فَغَضِبَ مُعَاوِيَةُ، فَقَامَ فَأَثْنَى عَلَى اللَّهِ بِمَا هُوَ أَهْلُهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنَّهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رِجَالاً مِنْكُمْ يَتَحَدَّثُونَ أَحَادِيثَ لَيْسَتْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ، وَلاَ تُؤْثَرُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، فَأُولَئِكَ جُهَّالُكُمْ، فَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالأَمَانِيَّ الَّتِي تُضِلُّ أَهْلَهَا، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ هَذَا الأَمْرَ فِي قُرَيْشٍ، لاَ يُعَادِيهِمْ أَحَدٌ إِلاَّ كَبَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى وَجْهِهِ، مَا أَقَامُوا الدِّينَ ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ، حَدَّثَنَا عَاصِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبِي، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ "‏ لا يَزَالُ هَذَا الأَمْرُ فِي قُرَيْشٍ، مَا بَقِيَ مِنْهُمُ اثْنَانِ ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ بْنِ قَعْنَبٍ، وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا الْمُغِيرَةُ، - يَعْنِيَانِ الْحِزَامِيَّ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، وَعَمْرٌو النَّاقِدُ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، كِلاَهُمَا عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَفِي حَدِيثِ زُهَيْرٍ يَبْلُغُ بِهِ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ وَقَالَ عَمْرٌو رِوَايَةً "‏ النَّاسُ تَبَعٌ لِقُرَيْشٍ فِي هَذَا الشَّأْنِ مُسْلِمُهُمْ لِمُسْلِمِهِمْ وَكَافِرُهُمْ لِكَافِرِهِمْ ‏"

وَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ حَبِيبٍ الْحَارِثِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا رَوْحٌ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الزُّبَيْرِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، يَقُولُ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم "‏ النَّاسُ تَبَعٌ لِقُرَيْشٍ فِي الْخَيْرِ وَالشَّرِّ ‏"

حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ حُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ح وَحَدَّثَنَا رِفَاعَةُ بْنُ الْهَيْثَمِ الْوَاسِطِيُّ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ - حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الطَّحَّانَ - عَنْ حُصَيْنٍ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ، قَالَ دَخَلْتُ مَعَ أَبِي عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ إِنَّ هَذَا الأَمْرَ لاَ يَنْقَضِي حَتَّى يَمْضِيَ فِيهِمُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ثُمَّ تَكَلَّمَ بِكَلاَمٍ خَفِيَ عَلَىَّ - قَالَ - فَقُلْتُ لأَبِي مَا قَالَ قَالَ ‏"‏ كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا هَدَّابُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الأَزْدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ جَابِرَ بْنَ سَمُرَةَ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ لاَ يَزَالُ الإِسْلاَمُ عَزِيزًا إِلَى اثْنَىْ عَشَرَ خَلِيفَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ كَلِمَةً لَمْ أَفْهَمْهَا فَقُلْتُ لأَبِي مَا قَالَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ كُلُّهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو أُسَامَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ أَبِي التَّيَّاحِ، عَنْ أَبِي زُرْعَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ يُهْلِكُ النَّاسَ هَذَا الْحَىُّ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالُوا فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا قَالَ ‏"‏ لَوْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ اعْتَزَلُوهُمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ مَحْمُودٌ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو دَاوُدَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعْبَةُ عَنْ أَبِي التَّيَّاحِ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا زُرْعَةَ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الْهَاشِمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، حَدَّثَنِي صَالِحُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم "‏ مَنْ يُرِدْ هَوَانَ قُرَيْشٍ أَهَانَهُ اللَّهُ ‏" .‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.

البدو

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو سَلَمَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ "‏ الْفَخْرُ وَالْخُيَلاَءُ فِي الْفَدَّادِينَ أَهْلِ الْوَبَرِ، وَالسَّكِينَةُ فِي أَهْلِ الْغَنَمِ، وَالإِيمَانُ يَمَانٍ، وَالْحِكْمَةُ يَمَانِيَةٌ ‏"‏‏.‏ سُمِّيَتِ الْيَمَنَ لأَنَّهَا عَنْ يَمِينِ الْكَعْبَةِ، وَالشَّأْمَ عَنْ يَسَارِ الْكَعْبَةِ، وَالْمَشْأَمَةُ الْمَيْسَرَةُ، وَالْيَدُ الْيُسْرَى الشُّؤْمَى، وَالْجَانِبُ الأَيْسَرُ الأَشْأَمُ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ قَيْسٍ، عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ، يَبْلُغُ بِهِ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ "‏ مِنْ هَا هُنَا جَاءَتِ الْفِتَنُ نَحْوَ الْمَشْرِقِ، وَالْجَفَاءُ وَغِلَظُ الْقُلُوبِ فِي الْفَدَّادِينَ أَهْلِ الْوَبَرِ عِنْدَ أُصُولِ أَذْنَابِ الإِبِلِ، وَالْبَقَرِ فِي رَبِيعَةَ وَمُضَرَ ‏"

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ الْحِمْصِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ أَهْدَى رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي فَزَارَةَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَاقَةً مِنْ إِبِلِهِ الَّتِي كَانُوا أَصَابُوا بِالْغَابَةِ فَعَوَّضَهُ مِنْهَا بَعْضَ الْعِوَضِ فَتَسَخَّطَهُ فَسَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى هَذَا الْمِنْبَرِ يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ رِجَالاً مِنَ الْعَرَبِ يُهْدِي أَحَدُهُمُ الْهَدِيَّةَ فَأُعَوِّضُهُ مِنْهَا بِقَدْرِ مَا عِنْدِي ثُمَّ يَتَسَخَّطُهُ فَيَظَلُّ يَتَسَخَّطُ فِيهِ عَلَىَّ وَايْمُ اللَّهِ لاَ أَقْبَلُ بَعْدَ مَقَامِي هَذَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ هَدِيَّةً إِلاَّ مِنْ قُرَشِيٍّ أَوْ أَنْصَارِيٍّ أَوْ ثَقَفِيٍّ أَوْ دَوْسِيٍّ ‏" ‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ وَهُوَ أَصَحُّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ هَارُونَ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ آدَمَ ابْنُ بِنْتِ أَزْهَرَ السَّمَّانِ، حَدَّثَنِي جَدِّي، أَزْهَرُ السَّمَّانُ عَنِ ابْنِ عَوْنٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لَنَا فِي شَأْمِنَا اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لَنَا فِي يَمَنِنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَفِي نَجْدِنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ لَنَا فِي شَأْمِنَا وَبَارِكْ لَنَا فِي يَمَنِنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا وَفِي نَجْدِنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ هُنَاكَ الزَّلاَزِلُ وَالْفِتَنُ وَبِهَا أَوْ قَالَ مِنْهَا يَخْرُجُ قَرْنُ الشَّيْطَانِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ مِنْ حَدِيثِ ابْنِ عَوْنٍ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ أَيْضًا عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ الْهَمْدَانِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ، وَنَافِعُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْهَادِ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لاَ تَجُوزُ شَهَادَةُ بَدَوِيٍّ عَلَى صَاحِبِ قَرْيَةٍ ‏"‏

الاثيوبيين

حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ صَبَّاحٍ الْبَزَّارُ، حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ حُبَابٍ، عَنْ خَارِجَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ رُومَانَ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَالِسًا فَسَمِعْنَا لَغَطًا وَصَوْتَ صِبْيَانٍ فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَإِذَا حَبَشِيَّةٌ تُزْفِنُ وَالصِّبْيَانُ حَوْلَهَا فَقَالَ ‏"‏ يَا عَائِشَةُ تَعَالَىْ فَانْظُرِي ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَجِئْتُ فَوَضَعْتُ لَحْيَىَّ عَلَى مَنْكِبِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجَعَلْتُ أَنْظُرَ إِلَيْهَا مَا بَيْنَ الْمَنْكِبِ إِلَى رَأْسِهِ فَقَالَ لِي ‏"‏ أَمَا شَبِعْتِ أَمَا شَبِعْتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ فَجَعَلْتُ أَقُولُ لاَ لأَنْظُرَ مَنْزِلَتِي عِنْدَهُ إِذْ طَلَعَ عُمَرُ قَالَ فَارْفَضَّ النَّاسُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنِّي لأَنْظُرُ إِلَى شَيَاطِينِ الإِنْسِ وَالْجِنِّ قَدْ فَرُّوا مِنْ عُمَرَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ فَرَجَعْتُ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ ‏.

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنِي أَخِي عَبْدُ الْحَمِيدِ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ بِلاَلٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ رَأَيْتُ كَأَنَّ امْرَأَةً سَوْدَاءَ ثَائِرَةَ الرَّأْسِ، خَرَجَتْ مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ، حَتَّى قَامَتْ بِمَهْيَعَةَ ـ وَهْىَ الْجُحْفَةُ ـ فَأَوَّلْتُ أَنَّ وَبَاءَ الْمَدِينَةِ نُقِلَ إِلَيْهَا ‏"

السود

حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنِي أَخِي عَبْدُ الْحَمِيدِ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ بِلاَلٍ، عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ رَأَيْتُ كَأَنَّ امْرَأَةً سَوْدَاءَ ثَائِرَةَ الرَّأْسِ، خَرَجَتْ مِنَ الْمَدِينَةِ، حَتَّى قَامَتْ بِمَهْيَعَةَ ـ وَهْىَ الْجُحْفَةُ ـ فَأَوَّلْتُ أَنَّ وَبَاءَ الْمَدِينَةِ نُقِلَ إِلَيْهَا ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى التَّمِيمِيُّ، وَابْنُ، رُمْحٍ قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا اللَّيْثُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنِيهِ قُتَيْبَةُ، بْنُ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، عَنْ أَبِي الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ جَاءَ عَبْدٌ فَبَايَعَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى الْهِجْرَةِ وَلَمْ يَشْعُرْ أَنَّهُ عَبْدٌ فَجَاءَ سَيِّدُهُ يُرِيدُهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ بِعْنِيهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَاشْتَرَاهُ بِعَبْدَيْنِ أَسْوَدَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُبَايِعْ أَحَدًا بَعْدُ حَتَّى يَسْأَلَهُ ‏"‏ أَعَبْدٌ هُوَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
ومِن بَنِي لَوْذانَ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ: نَبْتَلُ بْنُ الحارِثِ، وهُوَ الَّذِي قالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم- فِيما بَلَغَنِي: مَن أحَبَّ أنْ يَنْظُرَ إلى الشَّيْطانِ، فَلْيَنْظُرْ إلى نَبْتَلَ بْنِ الحارِثِ، وكانَ رَجُلًا جَسِيمًا أذْلَمَ [١] ثائِرَ [٢] شَعْرِ الرَّأْسِ أحْمَرَ.
ابن هشام (ت 833). سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.1، ص.523.


He [the prophet] sent Khalid bin al-Walid in Ramadan 8 A.H., to a spot called Nakhlah ‎where there was a goddess called Al-‘Uzza venerated by the Quraish and Kinanah . . . On ‎his return, the Prophet asked him if he had seen anything there, to which Khalid gave a ‎negative answer . . . He went back again and there he saw a black woman, naked with torn ‎hair. Khalid struck her with his sword into two parts. He returned and narrated the story ‎to the Prophet, who then confirmed the fulfillment of the task.‎
Sa’d bin Zaid Al-Ashhali was also sent in the same month and on the same mission to Al-‎Mushallal to destroy an idol, Manat, respected by both Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj tribes. Here ‎also a black woman, naked with messy hair appeared wailing and beating on her chest. ‎Sa’d immediately killed her . . .‎
person narrated to me from Ibn Hanain that he said: I saw that black man.

حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، وَيُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، قَالاَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ الْحَارِثِ، عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ الأَشَجِّ، عَنْ بُسْرِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ الْحَرُورِيَّةَ لَمَّا خَرَجَتْ وَهُوَ مَعَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ - رضى الله عنه - قَالُوا لاَ حُكْمَ إِلاَّ لِلَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَلِيٌّ كَلِمَةُ حَقٍّ أُرِيدَ بِهَا بَاطِلٌ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَصَفَ نَاسًا إِنِّي لأَعْرِفُ صِفَتَهُمْ فِي هَؤُلاَءِ ‏

"‏ يَقُولُونَ الْحَقَّ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ لاَ يَجُوزُ هَذَا مِنْهُمْ - وَأَشَارَ إِلَى حَلْقِهِ - مِنْ أَبْغَضِ خَلْقِ اللَّهِ إِلَيْهِ مِنْهُمْ أَسْوَدُ إِحْدَى يَدَيْهِ طُبْىُ شَاةٍ أَوْ حَلَمَةُ ثَدْىٍ ‏"

‏ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا قَتَلَهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ - رضى الله عنه - قَالَ انْظُرُوا ‏.‏ فَنَظَرُوا فَلَمْ يَجِدُوا شَيْئًا فَقَالَ ارْجِعُوا فَوَاللَّهِ مَا كَذَبْتُ وَلاَ كُذِبْتُ ‏.‏ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثًا ثُمَّ وَجَدُوهُ فِي خَرِبَةٍ فَأَتَوْا بِهِ حَتَّى وَضَعُوهُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ وَأَنَا حَاضِرُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ ‏.‏ وَقَوْلِ عَلِيٍّ فِيهِمْ زَادَ يُونُسُ فِي رِوَايَتِهِ قَالَ بُكَيْرٌ وَحَدَّثَنِي رَجُلٌ عَنِ ابْنِ حُنَيْنٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ ذَلِكَ الأَسْوَدَ ‏.‏
وروي عن ضمرة بن ربيعة، عن ابن عطاء، عن أبيه، قال: ولد حام كل أسود جعد الشعر، وولد يافث كل عظيم الوجه صغير العينين، وولد سام كل حسن الوجه حسن الشعر قال: ودعا نوح على حام ألا يعدو شعر ولده آذانهم، وحيثما لقي ولده ولد سام استعبدوهم.
الطبري، أبو جعفر (ت 923). تاريخ الرسل والملوك. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.1، ص.210.
قَالَ ابْنُ إسْحَاقَ: وَحَدَّثَنِي عَاصِمُ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ قَتَادَةَ: أَنَّ أَبَا عَامِرٍ، عَبْدَ عَمْرِو ابْن صَيْفِيِّ بْنِ مَالِكِ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ، أَحَدَ بَنِي ضُبَيْعَةَ، وَقَدْ كَانَ خَرَجَ حِينَ خَرَجَ إلَى مَكَّةَ مُبَاعِدًا لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، مَعَهُ خَمْسُونَ غُلَامًا مِنْ الْأَوْسِ، وَبَعْضُ النَّاسِ كَانَ يَقُولُ: كَانُوا خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ رَجُلًا، وَكَانَ يَعِدُ قُرَيْشًا أَنْ لَوْ قَدْ لَقِيَ قَوْمَهُ لَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهُمْ رَجُلَانِ، فَلَمَّا الْتَقَى النَّاسُ كَانَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ لَقِيَهُمْ أَبُو عَامِرٍ فِي الْأَحَابِيشِ وَعُبْدَانُ أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ، فَنَادَى: يَا مَعْشَرَ الْأَوْسِ، أَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ، قَالُوا: فَلَا أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ بِكَ عَيْنًا يَا فَاسِقُ- وَكَانَ أَبُو عَامِرٍ يُسَمَّى فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ: الرَّاهِبَ، فَسَمَّاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: الْفَاسِقَ- فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ رَدَّهُمْ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ: لَقَدْ أَصَابَ قَوْمِي بَعْدِي شَرٌّ، ثُمَّ قَاتَلَهُمْ قِتَالًا شَدِيدًا، ثُمَّ رَاضَخَهُمْ [1] بِالْحِجَارَةِ.
ابن هشام (ت 833). سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.67.
"Abu Darda reported that the Holy Prophet said: Allah created Adam when he created him (sic). Then He stroke (sic) his right shoulder and took out a white race as if they were seeds, and He stroke (sic) his left shoulder and took out a black race as if they were coals. Then He said to those who were in his right side: Towards paradise and I don't care. He said to those who were on his left shoulder: Towards Hell and I don't care. - Ahmad"
Mishkat, Vol. 3, p. 117. Al-Tirmidhi No. 38, Alim.org (Archived).

التسلسلات الهرمية الأخرى والقبائل والعناصر

حَدَّثَنَا قَبِيصَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ،‏.‏ حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ كَانَ جُهَيْنَةُ وَمُزَيْنَةُ وَأَسْلَمُ وَغِفَارُ خَيْرًا مِنْ بَنِي تَمِيمٍ وَبَنِي أَسَدٍ، وَمِنْ بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ غَطَفَانَ وَمِنْ بَنِي عَامِرِ بْنِ صَعْصَعَةَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ خَابُوا وَخَسِرُوا‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ هُمْ خَيْرٌ مِنْ بَنِي تَمِيمٍ وَمِنْ بَنِي أَسَدٍ، وَمِنْ بَنِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ غَطَفَانَ، وَمِنْ بَنِي عَامِرِ بْنِ صَعْصَعَةَ ‏"‏‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَالَ أَسْلَمُ وَغِفَارُ وَشَىْءٌ مِنْ مُزَيْنَةَ وَجُهَيْنَةَ ـ أَوْ قَالَ شَىْءٌ مِنْ جُهَيْنَةَ أَوْ مُزَيْنَةَ ـ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ـ أَوْ قَالَ ـ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنْ أَسَدٍ وَتَمِيمٍ وَهَوَازِنَ وَغَطَفَانَ‏.‏

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ قَتَادَةَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي أُسَيْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏

"‏ خَيْرُ دُورِ الأَنْصَارِ دُورُ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ ثُمَّ دُورُ بَنِي عَبْدِ الأَشْهَلِ ثُمَّ بَنِي الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْخَزْرَجِ ثُمَّ بَنِي سَاعِدَةَ وَفِي كُلِّ دُورِ الأَنْصَارِ خَيْرٌ ‏"

‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ سَعْدٌ مَا أَرَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلاَّ قَدْ فَضَّلَ عَلَيْنَا ‏.‏ فَقِيلَ قَدْ فَضَّلَكُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏ وَأَبُو أُسَيْدٍ السَّاعِدِيُّ اسْمُهُ مَالِكُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ نَحْوُ هَذَا عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ وَرَوَاهُ مَعْمَرٌ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ وَعُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏

"‏ أَتَاكُمْ أَهْلُ الْيَمَنِ هُمْ أَضْعَفُ قُلُوبًا وَأَرَقُّ أَفْئِدَةً الإِيمَانُ يَمَانٍ وَالْحِكْمَةُ يَمَانِيَةٌ ‏"

‏ ‏.‏ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبِي مَسْعُودٍ ‏.‏ وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ آدَمَ ابْنُ بِنْتِ أَزْهَرَ السَّمَّانِ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الصَّمَدِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْوَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَلْدَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْعَالِيَةِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مِمَّنْ أَنْتَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْتُ مِنْ دَوْسٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا كُنْتُ أُرَى أَنَّ فِي دَوْسٍ أَحَدًا فِيهِ خَيْرٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏ وَأَبُو خَلْدَةَ اسْمُهُ خَالِدُ بْنُ دِينَارٍ وَأَبُو الْعَالِيَةِ اسْمُهُ رُفَيْعٌ ‏.‏

العنصر والقبيلة في الشريعة الإسلامية

الكفاءة في الزواج

آراء الأصحاب

‘Umar b. al-Khatṭāb said: “We forbid the private parts of noble women ̣to anyone except their equals.”
Abd al-Razzaq al-Sanani, "Bab al-Akfa [Chapter of Equivalence, no. 10324]", Musannaf, 6, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 152, https://app.turath.io/book/13174 ; translated in Susan A. Spectorsky, Women in Classical Islamic Law, Brill, p. 75, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2010 

آراء السلف

Kathīr b. Salt said: “A mawlā of ours who married an Arab woman was brought before the Caliph, ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz … and he said, ʿAbū Kathīr’s mawlā has overstepped his limits.’”
Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah, "What was said regarding equivalence in marriage, no. 17701", Musannaf, 4, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 52, https://app.turath.io/book/9944 ; translated in Susan A. Spectorsky, Women in Classical Islamic Law, Brill, p. 75, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2010 

الآراء الكلاسيكية

In his Athar, Shaybani quotes the first tradition above [‎“The Quraysh are each other’s equals, and the Arabs are each other’s equals. Among the ‎non-Arabs, whoever has two Muslim parents or grandparents are each other’s equal.”‎] approvingly and adds that if a woman does marry a man who is not her [racial and/or tribal] ‎equal, and her wali [legal male guardian] brings the matter to the qadi [Islamic judge], ‎the qadi ought to separate the couple. . . . Shaybani also notes that Abu Ḥanifa agrees that the qadi separates the couple.”‎
Susan A. Spectorsky, Women in Classical Islamic Law, Brill, pp. 77-78, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2010 
‎[Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was asked] ‘I have a ‎paternal first cousin who is an Arab. Shall I give her in marriage to a mawla (i.e., a non-‎Arab client)?’ [Ibn Hanbal] said, ‘No.’ The man said, ‘But she is sickly (da’ifa).’ Ahmad said, ‎‎‘Do not give her in marriage (to him).’ [On another occasion, another man asked Ibn ‎Hanbal] about someone who marries off his daughter to a mawla? He (Ibn Hanbal) ‎replied: I would separate them. Then he (Ibn Hanbal) said: An Arab (married to) an Arab ‎‎(is) suitable (kaf’) and Quraysh (married to) Quraysh (is) suitable (kaf’). Then he ‎‎(presumably the interlocuter) asked: What would you think if a Zangi (Negro) married ‎one of the offspring (walad) of Fatima [the daughter of Muhammad]? He (Ibn Hanbal) ‎disapproved of it, and said: that is the doctrine of the Shu’ubiyya [a Persian sect that ‎believed in racial egalitarianism].‎
Nimrod Hurvitz, The Formation of Hanbalism, Routledge, pp. 31-32, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2002 
If the bride selects a suitor who is not a suitable match for her, the guardian [wali; male legal guardian] is not obliged to marry her to him. If she selects a suitable match but her guardian chooses a different suitor who is also a suitable match, then the man chosen by the guardian takes precedence if the guardian is one who may lawfully compel her to marry (def: m3.13(1)), while the one she selects takes precedence when the guardian may not lawfully compel her to marry (m3.13(2)). [...] m4.2 The following are not suitable matched for one another: (1) a non-Arab man for an Arab woman (O: because of the hadith that the Prophet (Allah bless ‎him and give him peace) said, ‘Allah has chosen the Arabs above others.’‎
Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, "m4.0 A Suitable Match (Kafa'a)", Reliance of the Traveler (Revised Edition ed.), Beltsville: Amana Publications, p. 523, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1997, http://www.catheyallison.com/Reliance_of_the_Traveller.pdf 

الآراء الحديثة

The Jurists have stated that among Arabs, a non-Quraishi male is not a match (Kuf) for a Quraishi woman, nor can any person of non-Arab descent be a match for a woman of Arab descent. For example, the Sayyids, whether Siddique or Farooque, Uthmaani or Alawi, or belonging to some other branch can never be matched by any person not sharing their lineage, no matter his profession and family status. The Sayyids are suitable matches for one another, since they share descent from the Quraishi tribe. Thus, marriages between themselves are correct and permitted without any condition as appearing in Durrul Mukhtar:

“And Kafaah in lineage. Thus the Quraysh are suitable matches for one another as are the (other) Arabs suitable matches for one another.”

The ruling relevant to non-Arabs is as follows: ‘An Ajmi (non-Arab) cannot be a match for a woman of Arab descent, no matter that he be an Aalim (religious scholar) or even a Sultan (ruling authority)‘. (Raddul Muhtar p.209 v.4)
It should be remarked here that all non-Arabs are considered a suitable match to each other (and for Arabs without a known and established lineage to one of the original Arab tribes, which is rare, as mentioned by Ibn Abidin) from a fiqhi ["jurisprudential" or "legal"] aspect. It could be so that a boy/girl from a different background altogether is a suitable match, rather than your cousin brother or sister. Students of sacred knowledge have a lot in common and it would be advisable to marry a fellow student from a different caste rather than your first cousin who doesn’t even have a clue what you are studying.

جرم الخطأ المتعمد بالتعريف العنصري

الإمام مالك

Chapter: Regarding he who ascribed to an Arab or non-Arab the kinship of other than ‎his own people […]‎

I [Sahnun] said: What if he said to an Arab man, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’ or ‘Oh Persian!’ or ‘Oh ‎Roman!’ or ‘Oh Berber!’? Will the hadd [referring to the hadd punishment known as ‎‎hadd al-firyah – that is, the punishment of 80 lashes for slander] be implemented ‎according to Malik?‎

He [Ibn al-Qasim, Imam Malik’s companion for twenty years] said: Yes [the hadd will be ‎implemented].‎

I said: What if he said to a non-Arab [mawla], ‘Oh Persian!’, while he is a Roman? Or he ‎said to a Berber, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’ or ‘Oh Persian!’? Or he said to a Persian, ‘Oh Roman!’ or ‎‎‘Oh Nabatean!’? Will the hadd be implemented in this case according to Imam Malik or ‎not?‎

He said: Malik said: When it is said to a Persian, ‘Oh Roman!’, ‘Oh Ethiopian!’, or ‎something similar, then there is no hadd with regard to this. And it was differed upon ‎about Malik regarding whether or not the one who says to the Roman or Berber, ‘Oh ‎Ethiopian!’ would have the hadd upon him. And I think that there is no hadd upon him ‎‎[the criminal] except if he says to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’ while he ‎‎[the victim] is white. If there are among his [the victim’s] forefathers none who are black, ‎then the hadd is implemented. And if he [the criminal] described him [the victim] as an ‎Ethiopian, saying, ‘Oh son of an Ethiopian!’, and he [the victim] was a Berber, then the ‎Ethiopian and the Roman [descriptions] in this case are the same [that is,] if he [the ‎victim] was a Berber – and it [i.e. this ruling] is the best of what I have heard from the ‎speech of Malik. And it [i.e. this ruling] was confirmed with me unless it were said to him ‎‎[the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’, for that would be clear slander if there were no ‎black person among his forefathers.‎

I said: What if he said to a Persian or Berber, ‘Oh Arab!’‎ He said: There is no hadd upon him in this case.‎

I said: What if he said to an Arab, ‘Oh Qurayshi!’, or to a man of Mudar [the tribe], ‘Oh ‎Yemeni!’, or said to a man from Yemen, ‘Oh Mudari’‎ He said: I see all of this as the cutting-off of lineage, and I think that it warrants the hadd ‎just as Malik says regarding the cutting-off of lineage [a different hadd punishment than ‎the 80-lashes hadd punishment for slander – i.e. lying about lineage (“cutting off lineage”, ‎or qatt al-nasab) is not necessarily slander (qadhf), while saying someone is the “son ‎of a black person” or describing an Arab as a non-Arab is], because the Arab’s lineage is ‎traced through his forefathers, so whoever attributes him [the Arab] to other than his ‎forefathers has done away with his [the Arab’s] lineage, [and] thus the hadd is upon him. ‎‎[…]‎

I said: And if he said to an Arab, ‘You are not from the Arabs’, will he not suffer the hadd ‎according to Malik?‎ He said: Yes [the criminal will suffer the hadd]. […]‎

Chapter: He said to a man, ‘Oh son of a disabled person!’ or ‘Oh son of a black person!’ ‎‎[…]‎

I said: What if he [the criminal] said to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a cupper!’ [one who ‎conducts cupping therapy] or, ‘Oh son of a tailor!’‎ He said: Malik said: If he [the victim] is an Arab, then the hadd is implemented unless ‎there is among his [the victim’s] forefathers someone who did that type of work.‎ Malik said: And if he [the victim] is a non-Arab, I hold that he [the criminal] should swear ‎by Allah that he did not intend thereby the cutting-off of lineage, and there is no hadd ‎upon him, and upon him is the tazeer [i.e. some other discretionary punishment ‎decided by the judge – these punishments are not allowed to exceed 40 lashes].‎ I said: why is it [the ruling] differentiated in this [case] between the Arab and the non-‎Arab? ‎ He said: Because they [i.e. cupping and tailoring] are the work of the non-Arabs.‎

I said: And if he [the criminal] said to him [the victim], ‘Oh son of a black person!’‎ He said: The hadd will be implemented upon him according to Malik if he [the victim] ‎was an Arab or a non-Arab unless there is a black person among his forefathers. […]‎

Chapter: Regarding he who said to a white man, ‘Oh son of a black person’ or ‘Oh one ‎blind in an eye!’ and he is healthy [i.e. not blind] […]‎

I said: What about the man who says to an Arab, ‘Oh non-Arab!’ Is he punished with the ‎hadd or not according to Malik?‎ He said: Yes [the criminal is punished with the hadd].‎ I said: What about the man who says to an Arab, ‘Oh slave!’ Is he punished with the hadd ‎or not according to Malik?‎ He said: Yes [the criminal is punished with the hadd].‎

I said: What if he said to a non-Arab, ‘Oh slave!’ - will he be lashed according to the hadd ‎or not according to Malik?‎ He said: I do not remember it [i.e. the ruling] from Malik, but I hold that there is no hadd ‎upon him. […]‎

Chapter: Regarding the one who was slandered and then left Islam

I said: What if I [Sahnun, being a criminal] slandered a man and then that man [the ‎victim] left Islam, thereafter returned to Islam, and then demanded of [i.e. against] me ‎the hadd [that it should be imparted against Sahnun] - Would you smite [i.e. lash] me for ‎him or not?‎ He said: There is no hadd upon his [the revert’s] slanderer [i.e. the criminal].‎

He, Ibn al-Qasim, said: If he [the criminal] slandered him, and then he [the criminal] left ‎Islam, or if he [the criminal] slandered him while he [the criminal] was an apostate ‎‎[murtad], then the hadd would be implemented against him [the criminal] while he ‎‎[the criminal] was an apostate – and if he [the criminal] repented [i.e. returned to Islam], ‎then the hadd would be implemented against him [the criminal] just as well. And if ‎someone [being a criminal] slandered him [the victim] while he [the victim] was an ‎apostate, and then he [the victim] repented, then there would be no hadd upon him [the ‎criminal]. And if someone [being a criminal] slandered him [the victim] before he [the ‎victim] apostatized, and then he [the victim] apostatized, then there is no hadd upon the ‎slanderer [i.e. the criminal] if he [the victim] repents [i.e. returns to Islam] – and indeed ‎this is similar to the case of a man who was slandered with [the accusation of] zina ‎‎[fornication/adultery] but was not taken thus for the hadd [i.e. not punished or ‎prosecuted] until he [the victim] [actually] committed zina [fornication/adultery], for ‎then [also] there is no hadd upon whoever slandered him.‎
Imam Malik; Sahnun; Ibn al-Qasim, "The book of the hudud with regards to adultery and slander", al-Mudawwana, 4, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, pp. 497-502, https://app.turath.io/book/587 
[Qadi Iyad repeats this twice:] Ahmad b. Abi Sulayman, the companion of Sahnun, said, 'Anyone who says that the Prophet was black (aswad) should be killed.'
Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa bi-ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa, 2, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 217, 234, https://app.turath.io/book/1753 ; translated in Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley, ed, (2004), Ash-Shifa of Qadi 'Iyad, Scotland, pp. 375, 387, 2004, https://archive.org/details/MuhammadMessengerOfAllahAshShifaOfQadiIyad 

العنصر والقبيلة في العقيدة الإسلامية

فضل العرب

الآراء الكلاسيكية

The Arabs are more intelligent than those other than themselves and are more capable ‎in delivery and expression . . . verily, what the people of the sunnah are upon is the belief ‎‎(i’tiqaad) that the Arab race is better (afdal) than the Non-Arab race. Whether (the Non-‎Arabs) are Hebrews, Aramaic, Romans, Persians and other than them . . . not simply due to ‎the fact the prophet peace be upon him is from them – even though this is [a point] of ‎superiority – but instead, they themselves are superior within themselves . . . [for] Allah the ‎Most High has designated the Arabs and their language with rulings that are peculiar and ‎unique.
Ibn Taymiyyah, Iqtida Sirat al-Mustaqim, 1, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, pp. 419-461, https://app.turath.io/book/11620 
The Quraysh are each other’s equals, and the Arabs are each other’s equals. Among the ‎non-Arabs, whoever has two Muslim parents or grandparents are each other’s equal.‎
Abu Hanifah quoted in Muhammad al-Shaybani, al-Jami al-Sagheer, pp. 140-141  quoted in Susan A. Spectorsky, Women in Classical Islamic Law, Brill, p. 77, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2010 
Imam Shafi'i said, "People do not become ignorant and do not disagree except due to their leaving the tongue ‎of the Arabs and their adoption of the tongue of Aristotle‎"
Arabs are of equal standing with each other, and the Quraysh are of equal standing with ‎each other.‎
Ahmad ibn Hanbal quoted in Ibn Hani, "no. 992", Masail Ahmad b. Hanbal, p. 200  quoted in Susan A. Spectorsky, Women in Classical Islamic Law, Brill, p. 78, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2010 
He (Ibn Hanbal) acknowledged the Arab’s due, and their superiority (fadlaha) and their ‎priority (sabiqataha) and he loved the . . . he (Ibn Hanbal) did not adhere to the doctrine ‎of the Shu’ubiyya ‎[a Persian sect that believed in racial egalitarianism] and the ‎contemptible (among) the mawali [non-Arabs] that disliked the Arabs and did not ‎concede to them their [Arabs] superiority. He (ascribed to) them (Shu’ubiyya) innovation, ‎hypocrisy and controversy.‎
Ibn Abi Ya'la, Tabaqat al-Hanabilah, 1, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 30, https://app.turath.io/book/9543 ; translated in Nimrod Hurvitz, The Formation of Hanbalism, Routledge, p. 32, قالب:Citation/identifier, 2002 

الآراء الحديثة

‎[In response to a question regarding Ibn Taymiyyah’s statement:] Do you think, now, that ‎the African people are like the Europeans in their conciousness and intelligence? . . . Do ‎you not prefer the European people over the African people? . . . [likewise,] Allah almighty ‎knows that the Arabs are . . . fit to bear the call [of Islam] and to understand it . . .
‎“Allah choose to send this Sharia to a prophet from the Arab nation . . . [because] they ‎were distinguished from among all nations [in] . . . quality of mind”‎
Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur, Maqasid al-Shari'ah, 3, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, pp. 260-261, https://app.turath.io/book/17094 
Allah chose the Arab for Islam because of their natural and moral characteristics that are ‎unique to them . . . I believe that the nature of the Arabs is mixed in with the religion of ‎Islam . . .‎
Abu Hasan Ali Nadwi (2nd ed.), Beirut, 1389 AH 
In the answer to question no. 115934, we noted that Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah are unanimously agreed that the Arabs are superior to others in terms of descent and lineage, and that regarding the Arabs as superior is in general terms, and does not apply at the individual level. So a non-Arab who is pious and righteous is better than an Arab who falls short in his duties to Allah, may He be exalted.
It is from that which is decided from the sunnah of the prophet that Arabism [urubah; ‎lit. “the quality of being ‎Arabian”[٣] is superior over other races. This is because ‎Allah chose Muhammad from the Arabs and made the Quran – which is the eternal ‎message – Arabic. And the Sunnis [lit. “people of the Sunnah”] have agreed upon the ‎superiority of the Arabism over other races and lineages.‎

The superiority of Arabism is a superiority of class [jins] and not individual, for the ‎devout and pious non-Arab is better than the Arab who is negligent about the truth of ‎Allah. Also, the superiority of Arabism is choice from Allah almighty. It is possible that the ‎wisdom behind this is apparent to us, and it is also possible that the wisdom behind this is not apparent to us – except ‎that there‏ ‏are in the Arab those attributes and faults that indicate the face of this ‎preference. […]‎

He [Ibn Taymiyyah], Allah have mercy upon him, said: “That which the Sunnis believe is ‎that the Arab race is superior to the non-Arab race: their Hebrews, Syriacs, Romans, ‎Persians, and others.‎

‎“The Quraysh are the most of superior of the Arabs, the Bani Hashim are the most ‎superior of the Quraysh, and the messenger of Allah is the most superior of the Bani ‎Hashim, for he is the most superior creation as an individual and the most superior ‎among them in lineage.‎

‎“Also, the superiority of the Arab, then the Quraysh, and then the Bani Hashim is not ‎merely due to the existence of the prophet among them – even if this is part of their ‎superiority. Rather, they are superior in and of themselves. Thus, the messenger of Allah ‎is proven to be superior in person and lineage, otherwise circularity is necessitated. […]‎

‎“This is why it has come in a hadith: ‘Love of the Arab is faith [iman], and hatred for ‎them is hypocrisy’. […]‎

‎“And know that the hadiths regarding the superiority of the Quraysh and then the ‎superiority of Bani Hashim are many - this is not the place for listing them - and they ‎indicate this matter as well, for the Quraysh are to the Arabs as the Arabs are to ‎humankind. And this is how the Sharia came. […]‎

‎“The reason for this superiority – and Allah knows best – is what they have been favored ‎with in their intellects, tongues, morals, and deeds, and that is because superiority is ‎either by beneficial knowledge or righteous deeds. Also, knowledge has a basis, and that ‎is the strength of the intellect – that is in memorization and understanding; perfection ‎also, and that is in the power of logic – that is in explanation and expression. And the ‎Arabs are better at understanding than others, better preserved, and more capable of ‎explanation and expression. And their tongue is the most perfect of tongues in ‎explanation, at differentiating different and similar meanings, and combines many ‎meanings in a few words.‎

‎“And as for deed, this is based on morals, which are based on natural instincts in the ‎soul. And their instincts are more obedient to the good than those of others, for they are ‎closest to generosity, gentleness, courage, loyalty, and other such praiseworthy moral ‎traits.” End.‎

Iqtida Sirat al-Mustaqim p. 148-162‎
The fact that Allah Most High has chosen the Arabs over other nations is affirmed in rigorously authenticated hadiths of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace; related by Bukhari and Muslim in their “Sahih” in the beginning of the chapter of merits, # 5897, on the authority of Wathilah ibn al-Asqa` who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘Verily Allah has chosen Kinanah from the son of Isma`il, and He has chosen Quraysh from among Kinanah and He has chosen Hashim from among Quraysh and He has chosen me from the Bani Hashim.’”

So this hadith is a primary text about the preference of Arabs over others and the preference of some Arabs over other Arabs. And this is what the Imams have chosen from the………of their books, and even in individual books such as the book of Qurb about the merit of Arabs, authored by the great Imam al-Hafiz Zayn al-din al-`Iraqi. And it was summarized by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami and others.

Therefore the preference of Arabs over other nations, and the preference of some Arabs over other Arabs is affirmed in the Sacred Law. Allah has even preferred some months over other months and some days and nights of over others, as well as places. So in the same way, Allah Glorious and Exalted is He, has chosen some men over others, such as the prophets over others and even some prophets over other prophets. Muslims should not have any objection to this, because all of this returns to the wisdom of the Most Wise, Glorious is He, who is not asked about what He does, but rather, they are the ones who are asked. So after a Muslim has believed in Allah as his Lord, the Truth, and that there is no God but Him, then he should know that this is from among His matters, Blessed and High is He, and there is nothing but magnificent wisdom in it that we might see or that we might not see. Either way, we are only responsible for submitting to His rule, Glorious is He. And among His rulings is that Arabs are preferred over others and that some Arabs are better than other Arabs, as the above hadith clearly explained. So it is not appropriate for anyone to disagree in this when the proof is perfectly valid.

And there should be no disagreement in what has just preceded nor any disagreement in what appears in the Magnificent Book and in the sunna where we find that the real source of Allah’s preference is God-fearingness (taqwa) which result in the good deeds that people earn and that they are accounted for. So whoever sends forth good for himself, Allah has preferred him over those who have sent forth evil. As for the preference of an Arab over a non-Arab, and the preference of some Arabs over others, this is not a deed that one can earn. Rather, it is a bounty that Allah gives to whom He wills. So he may will something for these people, and there is no objection to your Lord’s rule. This is like the preference of some days over others, because the mind reasons that all days are the same in and of themselves, and there is no distinction that might appear between them. However, the mind can understand why something is better if there is not ……….. So the Sacred law came and affirmed the preference of some over others, and for some of those things there were reasons and wisdoms, such as the preference of the night of Power over others because the Majestic Qur’an was revealed during it. And in some of these things, the wisdom is not apparent to us and so this falls into the chapter of absolute obedience, such as the number of cycles (rak`ahs) in the prayer.

It is obligatory on a Muslim to believe that Arabs are preferred over other nations because there is a proof for it. However, this is not one of the pillars of our religion such that if someone rejected this, they would be considered outside of Islam. But if one does reject this, one has sinned for not believing in it because it is an affirmed matter according to a clear rigorously authenticated hadith. Also, this issue is not something that is commonly known among most Muslims, so for this, one should not hasten to blame one who disagrees with it. It is necessary, rather, to tell him about the issue.

And the fact that Arabs are preferred over others does not mean that a non-Arab can not have a higher merit in the religion than an Arab, because a person earns the good deeds that Allah has recommended we compete for. This is the highest merit of God-fearingness and this will be the basis upon which things are decided in the hereafter. However, the merit of the Arabs will still remain, in terms of their respect and exaltation being higher than others. And from this some hadiths have come to us about the Quraysh being put first for the caliphate before others, such as the hadith in Bukhari (#3500) on the authority of Mu`awiyah, may Allah be well pleased with him who said, ” I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, ‘This matter of government belongs to the Quraysh. Anyone who takes a hostile attitude to them will be thrown on his face, as long as they are true to the faith.” And Bukhari also related (#3501) on the authority of Ibn `Umar from the Prophet, may Allah bless him and give him peace, that he said, “Government continues to belong to the Quraysh, even if they are (no more than) two.”

So I say that the merit of God-fearingness is what counts, according to the rigorously authenticated hadith, “And he who is slow in doing good deeds, his noble lineage will not quicken him (into entering Paradise).

العلماء ولافقهاء المسلمون على العنصر والقبيلة

"Therefore, the Negro nation are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because [Negroes] have little [that is essentially] human and have attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals, as we have stated."[٤]
Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah, 14th century
"beyond [known peoples of black West Africa] to the south there is no civilization in the proper sense. There are only humans who are closer to dumb animals than to rational beings. They live in thickets and caves, and eat herbs and unprepared grain. They frequently eat each other. They cannot be considered human beings."[٤]
Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah


[Blacks are] people who are by their very nature slaves.[٥]
Quoted in “Blasphemy Before God: The Darkness of Racism In Muslim Culture” by Adam Misbah aI-Haqq

كان ابن قتيبة عالم مشهور من كوفة في العراق

They [the Zanj, that is, blacks] are ugly and misshapen, because they live in a hot country. The heat ‎overcrooks them in the womb, and curls their hair.‎
Bernard Lewis, "Ventures in Ethnology", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 43-50, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201-1274), was a Shia Muslim Scholar and Grand Ayatollah كان محمد ابن محمد ابن حسن طوسی عالما شيعيا وآية الله

"If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar, in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth -in no other peculiarity or property - except for what God wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro, and more intelligent."[٤]
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Tasawwurat (Rawdat al-taslim):
[The Zanj (African) differ from animals only in that] their two hands are lifted above the ground,... Many have observed that the ape is more teachable and more intelligent than the Zanj.[٥]

كان المقدسي جغرافيا مسلما في العصور الوصطى.

"Of the neighbors of the Bujja, Maqdisi had heard that "there is no marriage among them; the child does not know his father, and they eat people -- but God knows best. As for the Zanj, they are people of black color, flat noses, kinky hair, and little understanding or intelligence."[٤]
Al-Muqaddasi (fl. 966), Kitab al-Bad' wah-tarikh, vol.4

Al-Masudi (896-956), was a Muslim historian and geographer, known as the "Herodotus of the Arabs."[٦]

"Galen says that merriment dominates the black man because of his defective brain, whence also the weakness of his intelligence."[٤]
Al-Masudi, Muruj al-dhahab
‎“[quoting another source in agreement:] Do not intermarry with the sons of Ham [blacks] ‎for they are the distorted among God’s creatures . . .”‎
Bernard Lewis, "Equality and Marriage", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 85-92, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 
[The Zanj have:] black complexion, kinky hair, flat nose[s], thick lips, slender hands and ‎feet, fetid odor, limited intelligence, extreme exuberance, [and] cannibalistic customs.
Alexandre Popovic, The Revolt of African Slaves in Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century, Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, p. 16, 1999 
كان ابن الفقيه مؤرخا وجغرافيا مسلما في العصور الوصطى.
"A man of discernment said: The people of Iraq ... do not come out with something between blonde, buff and blanched coloring, such as the infants dropped from the wombs of the women of the Slavs and others of similar light complexion; nor are they overdone in the womb until they are burned, so that the child comes out something between black, murky, malodorous, stinking, and crinkly-haired, with uneven limbs, deficient minds, and depraved passions, such as the Zanj, the Somali, and other blacks who resemble them. The Iraqis are neither half-baked dough nor burned crust but between the two."[٤]
Ibn al-Faqih al-Hamadani, Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan, 903 AD

كان أبو ريحان البروني عالما مسلما ومتعدد الثقافات مسلما

"The Zanj are so uncivilized that they have no notion of a natural death. If a man dies a natural death, they think he was poisoned. Every death is suspicious with them, if a man has not been killed by a weapon."[٤]
Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, India, 1030 AD

Hudud al-`Alam is a book dedicated to Abu l-Ḥārith Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, a ruler of the local Farighunid dynasty. كان حدود العلم مكتوب لآبو الحريث محمد بن أحمد, قائد في المملكة آل فريغون.

"Their [Zanj] nature is that of wild animals. They are extremely black." "Among themselves [the Sudan] there are people who steal each other's children and sell them to the merchants when the latter arrive."[٤]
Hudud al-`Alam, 982 AD
"[inhabitants of sub-Saharan African countries] are people distant from the standards of humanity" "Their nature is that of wild animals..."[٤]
Hudud al-`alam, 982 AD
"As regards southern countries, all their inhabitants are black on account of the heat of their climate... Most of them go naked... In all their lands and provinces, gold is found.... They are people distant from the standards of humanity."[٤]
Hudud al-`Alam, 982 AD
كان الجاحظ (781–869) عالما مسلما مشهورا 
"Like the crow among mankind are the Zanj [African Blacks] for they are the worst of men and the most vicious of creatures in character and temperament."[٤]
Jahiz, Kitab al-Hayawan, vol. 2
"We know that the Zanj (blacks) are the least intelligent and the least discerning of mankind, and the least capable of understanding the consequences of actions."[٤]
Jahiz, Kitab al-Bukhala (The Book of Misers)
"They [the Shu`ubiyya] maintain that eloquence is prized by all people at all times - even the Zanj, despite their dimness, their boundless stupidity, their obtuseness, their crude perceptions and their evil dispositions, make long speeches."[٤]
Jahiz, Al-Bayan wa`l-tabyin, vol. 3

كان ابن أبي زيد القيرواني عالما مالكا مشهورا من القيروان في تونس

It is disliked to trade in the land of the enemy or the land of the blacks. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "Travel is a portion of punishment."[٧]



al-Ibshihi (1388–1446), Egyptian scholar who wrote an encyclopedia covering Islamic law, theology, mysticism, and some other topics.}}

Is there anything more vile than black slaves, of less good and more evil than they'? As for ‎the mulatto, if ‎you show kindness to one of them all your life and in every way, he will not ‎be grateful; and it will be as if ‎you had done nothing for him. The better you treat him, the ‎more insolent he will he; the worse you treat ‎him, the more humble and submissive. I have ‎tried this many times, and how well the poet says: ‘If you honor the honorable you possess ‎him / If you honor the ignoble, he will be insolent.’ It is said that when the [black] slave is ‎sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he steals. My grandfather ‎on my mother's side ‎used to say: The worst use of money is bringing up slaves, and mulattoes are even ‎worse ‎and wickeder than Zanj, for the mulatto does not know his father, while the Zanji often ‎knows both ‎parents. It is said of the mulatto that he is like a mule, because he is a mongrel. ‎‎. . . Do not trust a mulatto, ‎for there is rarely any good in him‎
Shihab al-Din al-Ibshihi, al-Mustatraf fi Kul Fan Mustatraf, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 328, https://app.turath.io/book/23802 ; translated in Bernard Lewis, "Image and Stereotype", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 92-99, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

Shams al-Dīn Muhammad b. Abī Talib al-Dimashqī (1256-1327), Damascene Imam who wrote on many topics.

The equatorial region is inhabited by communities of blacks who are to be numbered ‎among the savages ‎and beasts. Their complexions and hair are burnt and they are ‎physically and morally deviant. Their ‎brains almost boil from the sun's excessive heat.. . . ‎The human being who dwells there is a crude fellow, with a very black complexion, and ‎burnt hair, unruly, with stinking sweat, ‎and an abnormal constitution, most closely ‎resembling in his moral qualities a savage, or animals.‎
A. Mehren, ed, (1923), Nukhbat al-Dahr fi Ajaib al-Barr wal-Bahr, Leipzig: Harassowitz, pp. 15-17, 1923 ; translated in John Hunwick, West Africa, Islam, and the Arab World, Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, p. 81, 2006 

Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) Muslim scholar and traveler who wrote about his journeys across the world.

‎[Writing about West Africans‎:] When I saw it [their reception gift] I laughed, and was long astonished at their feeble ‎‎intellect and their respect for mean things.‎
Ibn Battuta in J.F.P. Hopkins; Nehemia Levtzion, eds, (1981), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge University Press, p. 298, 1981 

Al-Idrisi (1100-1165), Muslim geographer, writer, scientist, cartographer from Almoravid Spain.

‎[The Zanj, that is, blacks] are in great fear and awe of the Arabs, so much so that when they see an Arab ‎trader or traveler they bow ‎down and treat him with great respect [such that the Arab ‎can] lure them with dates, and lead them from place to place, until they seize them, take ‎them out of the country, and transport them ‎to their own countries . . . [They] lack of ‎knowledge and [have] defective minds . . .‎
Bernard Lewis, "The Discovery of Africa", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 50-54, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

Said al-Andalusi (1029-1070) was an Arab qadhi (Islamic judge) living in al-Andalus, Spain who wrote on the history of science and philosophy.

‎[The southern ‘barbarians’] are more like beasts than like men . . . For those who live furthest to the north between the last of the seven climates and the limits of the inhabited world, the excessive distance of the sun in relation to the zenith line makes the air cold and the atmosphere thick. Their temperaments are therefore frigid, their humors raw, their bellies gross, their color pale, their hair long and lank. Thus they lack keenness of understanding and clarity of intelligence, and are overcome by ignorance and dullness, lack of discernment, and stupidity. Such are the Slavs, the Bulgars, and their neighbors. For those peoples on the other hand who live near and beyond the equinoctial line to the limit of the inhabited world in the south, the long presence of the sun at the zenith makes the air hot and the atmosphere thin. Because of this their temperaments become hot and their humors fiery, their color black and their hair woolly. Thus they lack self-control and steadiness of mind and are overcome by fickleness, foolishness, and ignorance. Such are the blacks, who live at the extremity of the land of Ethiopia, the Nubians, the Zanj and the like. . . . [they are the only people] who diverge from this human ‎order and depart from this rational association are some dwellers in the steppes and ‎inhabitants of the deserts and wilderness, such as the rabble of Bujja, the savages of ‎Ghana, the scum of the Zanj, and their like.
Bernard Lewis, "Ventures in Ethnology", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 43-50, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 


Ibn Hazm (994-1064) was an Andalusian polymath who wrote on history, Islamic law, Islamic theology, philosophy, and is especially well regarded for his study of the hadiths.

God has decreed that ‎the most devout is the noblest even if he be a Negress’s bastard, and that the sinner and ‎unbeliever is at the lowest level even if he be the son of prophets.
Bernard Lewis, "Prejudice and Piety, Literature and Law", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 28-37, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

al-Kirmani (996-1021) was a famous Persian Ismaili theologian and philosopher.

In a philosophical work, he dismisses "the Turks, Zanj, Berbers, and their like" as "by their nature" without interest in the pursuit of intellectual knowledge and without desire to understand religious truth.
Bernard Lewis, "In Black and White", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 54-62, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

al-Mutannabi (915-965) was a famous Abbasid court poet from Iraq and one of the most influential poets in the history of Arabic.

‎The slave is no brother to the godly freeman. / even though he be born in the clothes of ‎the free. // Do not buy a slave without buying a stick with him, / for slaves are filthy and ‎scant of good. // I never thought I should live to see the day when a / dog would do me ‎evil and be praised in the bargain, // nor did I imagin that true men would have ceased to ‎exist, / and that the like of the father of bounty, / would still be here, // and that that ‎negro with his pierced camel’s lip / would be obeyed by those cowardly hirelings . . . // . . . ‎Who ever taught the eunuch negro nobility? His / “white” people, or his royal ancestors? ‎‎// or his ear bleeding in the hand of the slave-broker? / or his worth, seeing that for two ‎farthings / he would be rejected? // wretched Kafur is the most deserving of the base / to ‎be excused in regard to every baseness – / and sometimes excusing is a reproach – / and ‎that is because white stallions are incapable / of gentility, so how about black eunuchs?
Bernard Lewis, "In Black and White", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford

University Press, pp. 54-62, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

‎More stupid than a slave or his mate is he who makes / the slave his master . . . // . . . One ‎who holds you by his word is unlike one who holds / you in his jail – // The morality of the ‎‎[black] slave is bounded by his / stinking pudenda and his teeth. // He does not keep his ‎engagements of today, nor remember / what he said yesterday . . . // . . . Hope for no good ‎from a man over whose head the / slaver’s hand has passed, // And, if you are in doubt ‎about his person or / condition, look to his race. // One who is vile in his coat, was usually ‎vile / in his caul. // He who makes his way beyond his merits, still cannot / get away from ‎his root.
Bernard Lewis, "In Black and White", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford University Press, pp. 54-62, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 


Qadi Iyad (108301149) was one of the most famous Maliki jurists, also an Imam and qadi in Granada under the Almoravid dynasty.

[Qadi Iyad repeats this twice:] Ahmad b. Abi Sulayman, the companion of Sahnun, said, 'Anyone who says that the Prophet was black (aswad) should be killed.'
Qadi Iyad, al-Shifa bi-ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa, 2, al-Maktaba al-Shamila, p. 217, 234, https://app.turath.io/book/1753 ; translated in Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley, ed, (2004), Ash-Shifa of Qadi 'Iyad, Scotland, pp. 375, 387, 2004, https://archive.org/details/MuhammadMessengerOfAllahAshShifaOfQadiIyad 

Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (897-967) was an Arab litterateur, genealogist, poet, and musicologist.

[Retelling an anecdote about "an Arab poet known as al-Sayyid al-Himyari (723-89)":] The Sayyid was my neighbor, and he was very dark. He used to carouse with the young men of the camp, one of whom was as dark as he was, with a thick nose and lips, and a Negroid [muzannajj] appearance. The Sayyid had the foulest smelling armpits of anybody. They were jesting together one day, and the Sayyid said to him: "You are a Zanji in your nose and your lips!" whereat the youth replied to the Sayyid: "And you are a Zanji in your color and armpits!"
Bernard Lewis, "Image and Stereotype", Race and Slavery in the Middle East: A Historical Enquiry, Oxford

University Press, pp. 92-99, قالب:Citation/identifier, 1990 

المصادر

قالب:Reflist

  1. Islamqa.info
  2. Ibn Sa'd, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad. Kitab al-Tabaqat, vol i. Translated in English by S. Moinul Haq, Kitab Bhavan, 1784, Kalan Mahal, Daraya Ganj, New Delhi, India, 1972, p12.
  3. Lane’s Lexicon ‎عروبة‎
  4. ٤٫٠٠ ٤٫٠١ ٤٫٠٢ ٤٫٠٣ ٤٫٠٤ ٤٫٠٥ ٤٫٠٦ ٤٫٠٧ ٤٫٠٨ ٤٫٠٩ ٤٫١٠ ٤٫١١ ٤٫١٢ West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era
  5. ٥٫٠ ٥٫١ Comparative Digests Racism Arab and European Compared - Nathaniel Turner
  6. قالب:Cite book
  7. The Risala of 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani/ 43.16 Trading abroad - A Treatise on Maliki Fiqh (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dani by al-Azhari)(310/922 - 386/996)