القرآن والحديث والعلماء: البول
يعتبر البول نجسًا في الشريعة الإسلامية ، ويحتوي الفقه الراسخ على لوائح تختص بمكان وكيفية التبول ، وكذلك كيفية تنظيف النفس شعائرياً بعد الانتهاء من الفعل.
Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti reports from Abu Ya’la, Hakim, Dar Qutni, Tabarani, Abu Nu’aym from Umm Ayman (also known as Barakah) May Allah be pleased with her, who said, ‘the Prophet got up one night and urinated in a bowl. During that night, I rose in the state of thirst so I drank whatever was in the bowl. In the morning I told Him what I done and He smiled and said, ‘surely you will never have pain in your stomach’’. Abu Ya’ala’s wordings are as follows, ‘you will never feel stomach pain as of today’.
حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ وُهَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَدِمَ رَهْطٌ مِنْ عُكْلٍ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانُوا فِي الصُّفَّةِ، فَاجْتَوَوُا الْمَدِينَةَ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِنَا رِسْلاً. فَقَالَ
" مَا أَجِدُ لَكُمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَلْحَقُوا بِإِبِلِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ". فَأَتَوْهَا فَشَرِبُوا مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا حَتَّى صَحُّوا وَسَمِنُوا، وَقَتَلُوا الرَّاعِيَ وَاسْتَاقُوا الذَّوْدَ، فَأَتَى النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الصَّرِيخُ، فَبَعَثَ الطَّلَبَ فِي آثَارِهِمْ، فَمَا تَرَجَّلَ النَّهَارُ حَتَّى أُتِيَ بِهِمْ، فَأَمَرَ بِمَسَامِيرَ فَأُحْمِيَتْ فَكَحَلَهُمْ وَقَطَعَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَرْجُلَهُمْ، وَمَا حَسَمَهُمْ، ثُمَّ أُلْقُوا فِي الْحَرَّةِ يَسْتَسْقُونَ فَمَا سُقُوا حَتَّى مَاتُوا. قَالَ أَبُو قِلاَبَةَ سَرَقُوا وَقَتَلُوا وَحَارَبُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ.
" إِنْ شِئْتُمْ أَنْ تَخْرُجُوا إِلَى إِبِلِ الصَّدَقَةِ فَتَشْرَبُوا مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا " . فَفَعَلُوا فَصَحُّوا ثُمَّ مَالُوا عَلَى الرِّعَاءِ فَقَتَلُوهُمْ وَارْتَدُّوا عَنِ الإِسْلاَمِ وَسَاقُوا ذَوْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبَعَثَ فِي أَثْرِهِمْ فَأُتِيَ بِهِمْ فَقَطَعَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَرْجُلَهُمْ وَسَمَلَ أَعْيُنَهُمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي الْحَرَّةِ حَتَّى مَاتُوا.
فِي ناحِيَةِ الجَمّاءِ ، فَقَدِمَ عَلى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَفَرٌ مِن قَيْسٍ كُبَّةَ  مِن بَجِيلَةَ، فاسْتَوْبَئُوا ، وطَحِلُوا ، فَقالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم:لَوْ خَرَجْتُمْ إلى اللِّقاحِ فَشَرِبْتُمْ مِن ألْبانِها وأبْوالِها، فَخَرَجُوا إلَيْها.
" يَا عُمَرُ لاَ تَبُلْ قَائِمًا " . فَمَا بُلْتُ قَائِمًا بَعْدُ . قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَإِنَّمَا رَفَعَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَبْدُ الْكَرِيمِ بْنُ أَبِي الْمُخَارِقِ وَهُوَ ضَعِيفٌ عِنْدَ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ ضَعَّفَهُ أَيُّوبُ السَّخْتِيَانِيُّ وَتَكَلَّمَ فِيهِ . وَرَوَى عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ عُمَرُ رضى الله عنه مَا بُلْتُ قَائِمًا مُنْذُ أَسْلَمْتُ . وَهَذَا أَصَحُّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ وَحَدِيثُ بُرَيْدَةَ فِي هَذَا غَيْرُ مَحْفُوظٍ . وَمَعْنَى النَّهْىِ عَنِ الْبَوْلِ قَائِمًا عَلَى التَّأْدِيبِ لاَ عَلَى التَّحْرِيمِ . وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ إِنَّ مِنَ الْجَفَاءِ أَنْ تَبُولَ وَأَنْتَ قَائِمٌ .
فائدة شرب بول الجمل
With regard to the health benefits of drinking the milk and urine of camels, they are many, and they are well known to the earlier generations of medical science and they have been proven by modern scientific research.
Ibn al-Qayyim said:
The author of al-Qanoon (the Canon) – i.e. the doctor Ibn Seena (Avicenna) – said:
The most beneficial of urine is the urine of Bedouin camels which are called najeeb. End quote.
Zaad al-Ma’aad (4/47, 48).
In the Emirati newspaper al-Ittihaad (issue no. 11172, Sunday 6 Muharram 1427 AH/5 February 2006) it says:
One of the most important things for which camels are raised is their milk, which is efficacious in treating many illnesses, including hepatitis, and the digestive system in general, various types of cancer and other diseases.
In an article by Dr Ahlaam al-‘Awadi, which was published in al-Da’wah magazine, issue no. 1938, 25 Safar 1425 AH/15 April 2004 CE, about the diseases which can be treated with camel’s milk, as proven by experience, it says that there are many benefits in camel’s milk. There follows some of what was said in the article by Dr. Ahlaam:
Camel’s urine is efficacious in the treatment of skin diseases such as ringworm, tinea and abscesses, sores that may appear on the body and hair, and dry and wet ulcers. Camel’s urine brings the secondary benefits of making the hair lustrous and thick, and removing dandruff from the scalp. Camel’s milk is also beneficial in treating hepatitis, even if it has reached an advanced stage where medicine is unable to treat it. End quote.
In the al-Jazeerah al-Sa’oodiyyah newspaper (issue no. 10132, Rabee’ al-Awwal 1421 AH) there is a quotation from the book Al-Ibl Asraar wa i’jaaz (The camel: secrets and wonders) by Darmaan ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez Aal Darmaan and Sanad ibn Mutlaq al-Subay’i:
As for camel’s urine, the book suggests that it has numerous uses which are beneficial for man. This is indicated by the Prophetic texts and confirmed by modern science … Scientific experiments have proven that camel’s urine has a lethal effect on the germs that cause many diseases.
Among the uses of camel’s urine, many women use it to wash their hair, to make it longer, and to make it lighter and more lustrous. Camel’s urine is also efficacious in the treatment of swelling of the liver and other diseases such as abscesses, sores that appear on the body and toothache, and for washing eyes. End quote.
Prof. Dr. ‘Abd al-Fattaah Mahmoud Idrees says: With regard to the benefits of camel’s urine in treating disease, Ibn Seena said in his Qanoon: The most beneficial of urine is the urine of the Bedouin camels known as najeeb. Camel’s urine is beneficial in treating al-hazaaz, and it was said that al-hazzaz is a pain in the heart caused by anger and so on. Camel’s urine, especially the urine of a young she-camel – is used as a cleansing substance to wash wounds and sores, to make the hair grow, to strengthen and thicken it and to prevent it falling out, and it is used to treat diseases of the scalp and dandruff. In a Master’s thesis by an engineer in applied chemistry, Muhammad Awhaaj Muhammad, that was submitted to the faculty of applied chemistry in the al-Jazeerah university in Sudan, and approved by the Dean of science and postgraduate studies in the university in November 1998 CE, entitled A Study of the Chemical Composition and Some Medical Uses of the Urine of Arabian Camels, Muhammad Awhaaj says:
Laboratory tests indicate that camel’s urine contains high levels of potassium, albuminous proteins, and small amounts of uric acid, sodium and creatine.
In this study, he explained that what prompted him to study the medicinal properties of camel’s urine was what he had seen of some tribesmen drinking this urine whenever they suffered digestion problems. He sought the help of some doctors in studying camel’s urine. They brought a number of patients and prescribed this urine for them, for a period of two months. Their bodies recovered from what they had been suffering from, which proves the efficacy of camel’s urine in treating some diseases of the digestive system.
It also proves that this urine is useful in preventing hair loss. He says:
Camel’s urine acts as a slow-acting diuretic, but it does not deplete potassium and other salts as other diuretics do, because camel’s urine contains a high level of potassium and proteins. It has also been proven to be effective against some types of bacteria and viruses. It brought about an improvement in the condition of twenty-five patients who used camel’s urine for dropsy, without disrupting their potassium levels. Two of them were cured of liver pain, and their liver function was restored to normal levels, as well as the tissue of the liver being improved. One of the medicines used to treat blood clots is a compound called Fibrinoltics which works by changing a substance in the body from its inactive form, Plasminogen, to its active form, Plasmin, in order to dissolve the substance that causes clotting, Fibrin. One of the components of this compound is called Urokinase, which is produced by the kidneys or from the urine, as indicated by the name “uro”.
The dean of the Faculty of Medical Science in the Sudanese al-Jazeerah university, Professor Ahmad ‘Abd-Allaah Ahmadaani, has discovered a practical way of using camel’s urine to treat dropsy and swelling in the liver. Its success has been proven in treating those who are affected by these diseases. He said in a seminar organized by the al-Jazeerah University:
The experiment began by giving each patient a daily dose of camel’s urine mixed with camel’s milk to make it palatable. Fifteen days after the beginning of the experiment, the patients’ stomachs grew smaller and went back to their normal size.
He said that he examined the patients’ livers with ultrasound before the study began, and he found out that the livers of fifteen out of the twenty-five were in a cirrhotic state, and some of them had developed cirrhosis of the liver as the result of bilharzia. All of the patients responded to treatment with camel’s urine, and some of them continued, by their own choice, to drink a dose of camel’s urine every day for a further two months. At the end of that time, they were all found to have been cured of cirrhosis of the liver. He said: Camel’s urine contains a large amount of potassium, as well as albumen and magnesium, because the camel only drinks four times during the summer and once during the winter, which makes it retain water in its body so as to preserve the sodium, and the sodium causes it not to urinate a great deal, because it keeps the water in its body.
He explained that dropsy results from a deficiency of albumen or potassium, and the urine of camels in rich in both of these.
He suggested that the best type of camels for using the urine as a remedy are young camels.
Dr. Ahlaam al-‘Awadi, a specialist in microbiology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, supervised some scientific papers that dealt with her discoveries in the usage of camel’s urine for medical treatment, such as the papers by ‘Awaatif al-Jadeedi and Manaal al-Qattaan. During her supervision of the paper by Manaal al-Qattaan, she succeeded in confirming the effectiveness of using a preparation made from camel’s urine which was the first antibiotic produced in this manner anywhere in the world. Concerning the features of this new product, Dr. Ahlaam said:
It is not costly, and it is easy to manufacture. It can be used to treat skin diseases such as eczema, allergies, sores, burns, acne, nail infections, cancer, hepatitis and dropsy with no harmful side effects.
And she said:
Camel’s urine contains a number of healing factors such as antibiotics (bacteria that are present in it, salts and urea). The camel possesses an immune system that is highly equipped to combat funguses, bacteria and viruses, because it contains antibodies. It may also be used to treat blood clots and fibrinolytics may be derived from it, and it may be used to treat dropsy (which is caused by a deficiency in albumen and potassium, as camel’s urine is rich in both). Camel’s urine may also provide a remedy for abdominal complaints, especially those of the stomach and intestines, as well as asthma and shortness of breath. It caused a noticeable reduction in patients’ sugar levels. It is a remedy for low libido, and it aids in bone growth in children and in strengthening the heart muscles. It may be used as a cleansing agent for cleaning wounds and sores, especially the urine of young she-camels. It also helps the hair to grow and become strong and thick, and it helps to prevent hair loss and baldness, and can be used to treat dandruff. Camel’s urine may also be used to combat disease by using bacteria extracted from it. It was used to treat a girl who was suffering from an infection behind the ear, that was accompanied by pus weeping from it and painful cracks and sores. It was also used to treat a girl who was unable to extend the fingers of her hands because of the presence of so many cracks and sores, and whose face was almost black with pimples. Dr. Ahlaam said:
Camel’s urine may also be used to treat the digestive system and to treat some cases of cancer. She stated that the research that she had undertaken on camel’s urine proved that it was effective in destroying micro-organisms such as fungus, yeast and bacteria.
Dr. Rahmah al-‘Ulyaani, who is also from Saudi Arabia, carried out tests on rabbits infected with bacteria in the colon. She treated each group of rabbits with a different kind of medicine, including camel’s urine. There was a noticeable regression in the rabbits that were treated with other medicines, except for camel’s urine, which brought about a clear improvement.
Majallat al-Jundi al-Muslim, issue no. 118, 20 Dhu’l-Qa’dah 1425 AH; 1 January 2005 CE.
Allaah calls upon us to ponder the creation of the camel, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Do they not look at the camels, how they are created?”
This pondering is not limited to the outward form of the camel, or even to the inner workings of its body, rather it also includes that which we have discussed here, which is the benefits of the urine and milk of the camel. Modern scientific research is still discovering for us many of the wonders of this creature.And Allaah knows best.
Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 83423
قال النبي لواحد مريد ليشرب بول جمال
Is there any Hadith in which the Prophet instructs his sick companion to drink the urine of a camel? If it is as mentioned, what is the Hadith and why did the Prophet give such an instruction? We live in the West and this question has been posed to us by non-believers.
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.
Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Qulaba from Anas (Radiya Allahu Anhu) that he said: "The climate of Madina did not suit some people who came from 'Ukul or 'Uraynah. So, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) ordered them to follow his shepherd, i.e. his camels, and drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So, they followed the shepherd, that is the camels and drank their milk and urine till their bodies became healthy. Then they killed the shepherd and took the camels away. When the news reached the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) he sent some people in their pursuit. When they were brought, he cut their hands and feet and their eyes were branded with heated iron bars and they were left in Al Harra till they died in that state. Abu Qulaba said: 'they reverted to disbelief after conversion to Islam, stole and killed. In fact, they fought Allah and His Messenger'.
There is evidence from this Hadith that the milk and urine of camels is a treatment for some diseases. This is mentioned expressly in the Hadith narrated by Ibn Abbas from the apostle of Allah that he said: "The milk and urine of camels is a cure for those who suffer from (stomach) indigestion" [ Ahmad ].
Al-Nasae reported from Anas (Radiya Allahu Anhu) about the people of Akal and Arina: "When their skins became yellowish and their bellies got very big, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) sent them to his camels and ordered them to drink its milk and urine" . Ibn Al-Qayyim 'considered this as authentic Prophetic medicine'.Allah knows best.
Islamweb, Fatwa No. 85944, June 18, 2003
براز وبول الحيوان الهلال للأكر نقي
. . .
Ibn Taymiyyah gave in detail the evidence for regarding the excrement of the edible animals pure. Among this evidence is the hadith reported by Anas ibn Malik to the effect that some people from `Akal or `Uraynah came to Madinah but their health was affected by its weather. Upon knowing that, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) ordered that some camels be brought and that they drink from their urine and milk. According to Ibn Taymiyyah, on drinking the urine of camels, those people's mouths, hands, clothes, and vessels were to be contaminated with the urine. Had such urine been impure, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would have clarified that to them and ordered them to purify their hands, mouths and clothes upon performing Prayer, and to clean their vessels of the filth. But the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) did not do so. This shows that the urine is not impure. In addition to that, he (peace and blessings be upon him) mentioned the urine with the milk, and this indicates that they are equal, or at least casts doubts regarding the urine's being impure. Besides, he (peace and blessings be upon him) prescribed the camels' urine and milk as treatment. Had their urine been impure, he (peace and blessings be upon him) would not have prescribed it, for he would never prescribe something unlawful.From the above evidence, it is concluded that the urine and excrement of the animals whose meat is lawful to eat — according to the majority of scholars — is pure and Muslims are not to doubt about that.”
Islam Online, July 14, 2003
عقوبة بالقبر بسبب البول
What is it about urine that makes a dead person be punished for it in his/her grave? Is it that if he does not clean himself from urine, he is punished in the grave? Could you please explain this in some detail and I do not find the matter embracing at all since it is a serious matter.
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.
It is proved in Sunnah that everyone who does not clean himself from urine will receive torment in his grave. The Hadith of Ibn Abbas narrated that The Prophet once passed by two graves and those two persons (in the graves) were being tortured. He said, "They are being tortured not for a great thing (to avoid). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other was going about with calumnies (to make enmity between friends). He then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree split it into two pieces and fixed one on each grave. The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Why have you done so?" He replied, "I hope that their punishment may be lessened till they (the leaf) become dry."In the above Hadith it is clearly defined that the one who does not take precaution against urine deserves the torment of the grave. Imam Ibn Khuzaimah reported in his Sahih on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Prophet said: "The maximum torment of grave is for not avoiding urine", i.e. for not having kept away from urine to touch one's body or clothes. One reason for this torment might be that not cleaning oneself from urine causes ritual impurity and in the state of impurity prayer of the person is not valid so it causes annulment of the prayers which is also another great sin. Allah knows best.
Islamweb, Fatwa No. 83149, August 8, 2001
هل التبول حرام وانت وقائم؟
لا يَحْرُم تَبَوُّل الإنسان قائِماً ، لكِنْ يُسَنّ له أن يَتَبَوّل قاعداً ، لقول عائشة رضي الله عنها : " مَن حدّثكم أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يَبُول قائما فلا تصَدِّقوه ، ما كان يبول إلا قاعداً ) رواه الترمذي ( الطهارة/12) وقال هو أصح شيء في هذا الباب وصححه الألباني في صحيح سنن الترمذي برقم 11 ولأنه استر له وأحفظ له من أن يصيبه شيء من رِشَاشِ بَوْلِه .وقد رُوْيَتْ الرّخصة في البول قائماً بشرط أن يأمن تطاير رشاش البول على بدنه وثوبه ، ويأمن انكشاف عورته ، عن عمر وابن عمر وزيد بن ثابت رضي الله عنهم ، لما رواه البخاري ومسلم عن حذيفة رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ( أنه أَتى سُبَاطَةَ قومٍ فبالَ قائِماً ) ، ولا منافاة بينه وبين حديث عائشة رضي الله عنها ، لاحتمال أن يكون النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فعل ذلك لكَوْنِه في موضِعٍ لا يتمكَّن فيه من الجلوس ، أو فعَلَه ليُبَيِّن للناس أن البول قائماً ليس بِحَرَام ، وذلك لا ينافي أن الأصل ما ذكَرَتْهُ عائشة رضي الله عنها ، من بَوْلِه صلى الله عليه وسلم قاعداً ، وأنه سُنّة لا واجب يحرم خلافه . والله أعلم .
- Shaykh Munawwar Ateeq Rizvi, "[[[:قالب:Reference archive]] The Prophet's Urine]", Scholars' Pen, May 10, 2005
- A backup copy of the original article with improved formatting can be viewed here, and the original (or similar) article can also be accessed via several other Islamic websites, e.g. [[[:قالب:Reference archive]] here], [[[:قالب:Reference archive]] here] and [[[:قالب:Reference archive]] here].
- Al-Khasa’is al-Kubra 2:252, Matba’ah Da’irat al-Ma’arif, Hayder Abad
- Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer
- al-Mu’jam al-Kebeer, Umaymah bint Ruqayqah Bint Sayfi, Hadith no: 477, 24:189, prnt. Makatabah Ibn Taymiyah, Cairo
- Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, 2:381, Dar al-Baz, Makkah
- 2: 30, al-Maktabah al-Nuriyyahh al-Ridhwiyyah, Laiylpur.