القرآن والحديث والعلماء: الكذب والخداع

من ویکی اسلام
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يعتبر الكذب بشكل عام خطيئة للمؤمنين من قبل فقهاء المسلمين ، لكن هذا ليس حكما شاملا. يسجل التقليد محمد كذب وكسر القسم في عدد من المناسبات عندما يخدم الغرض منه ، لا سيما عندما يتعلق الأمر بالحرب. وكان هذا غباءه للتكتيك حتى أن هناك حالتين من حديث صحيح يسجل قوله: "الحرب غش". بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، فقد تم تسجيل الله نفسه على أنه "أفضل المخادعين" ويقود من لا يوافق عليهم إلى النار. في الواقع ، وفقًا لعقيدة القدر ، فإن جميع أولئك الذين يذهبون إلى الجحيم قد خدعهم الله عمدًا في هذا الهلاك النهائي.

القرآن

الله

الله هو خير الماكرين


ومكروا ومكر الله والله خير الماكرين


افامنوا مكر الله فلايامن مكر الله الا القوم الخاسرون

واذ يمكر بك الذين كفروا ليثبتوك او يقتلوك او يخرجوك ويمكرون ويمكر الله والله خير الماكرين


واذا اذقنا الناس رحمة من بعد ضراء مستهم اذا لهم مكر في اياتنا قل الله اسرع مكرا ان رسلنا يكتبون ماتمكرون


 وقد مكر الذين من قبلهم فلله المكر جميعا يعلم ماتكسب كل نفس وسيعلم الكفار لمن عقبى الدار

خلق الله الدين المسيحي بالخدعة

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا ٱلْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ لَفِى شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِۦ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا ٱتِّبَاعَ ٱلظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًۢا

بَل رَّفَعَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا


يخدع الله المسلمين

إِذْ يُرِيكَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِى مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلًا ۖ وَلَوْ أَرَىٰكَهُمْ كَثِيرًا لَّفَشِلْتُمْ وَلَتَنَٰزَعْتُمْ فِى ٱلْأَمْرِ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَلَّمَ ۗ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمٌۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ

وَإِذْ يُرِيكُمُوهُمْ إِذِ ٱلْتَقَيْتُمْ فِىٓ أَعْيُنِكُمْ قَلِيلًا وَيُقَلِّلُكُمْ فِىٓ أَعْيُنِهِمْ لِيَقْضِىَ ٱللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ ٱلْأُمُورُ


نقض اليمين

لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِٱللَّغْوِ فِىٓ أَيْمَٰنِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِٱللَّغْوِ فِىٓ أَيْمَٰنِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ ٱلْأَيْمَٰنَ ۖ فَكَفَّٰرَتُهُۥٓ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَٰكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَٰثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ كَفَّٰرَةُ أَيْمَٰنِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ ۚ وَٱحْفَظُوٓا۟ أَيْمَٰنَكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ ءَايَٰتِهِۦ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
قَدْ فَرَضَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ تَحِلَّةَ أَيْمَٰنِكُمْ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ مَوْلَىٰكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَلِيمُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ


التقية

الشيعة أو أهل البيت هم عندهم عقيدة اسمه التقية, وهي تبرر بالكذبة للتجنب من الإضطهاد الديني

لَّا يَتَّخِذِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ فِى شَىْءٍ إِلَّآ أَن تَتَّقُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ تُقَىٰةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ نَفْسَهُۥ ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
مَن كَفَرَ بِٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ إِيمَٰنِهِۦٓ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُۥ مُطْمَئِنٌّۢ بِٱلْإِيمَٰنِ وَلَٰكِن مَّن شَرَحَ بِٱلْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

الحديث

صحيح البخاري

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما أَنَّهُ قَدِمَ رَجُلاَنِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ، فَخَطَبَا، فَعَجِبَ النَّاسُ لِبَيَانِهِمَا، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِنَّ مِنَ الْبَيَانِ لَسِحْرًا ـ أَوْ ـ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الْبَيَانِ لَسِحْرٌ ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ ـ رضى الله عنه أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْتَقَى هُوَ وَالْمُشْرِكُونَ فَاقْتَتَلُوا، فَلَمَّا مَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى عَسْكَرِهِ، وَمَالَ الآخَرُونَ إِلَى عَسْكَرِهِمْ، وَفِي أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَجُلٌ لاَ يَدَعُ لَهُمْ شَاذَّةً وَلاَ فَاذَّةً إِلاَّ اتَّبَعَهَا يَضْرِبُهَا بِسَيْفِهِ، فَقَالَ مَا أَجْزَأَ مِنَّا الْيَوْمَ أَحَدٌ كَمَا أَجْزَأَ فُلاَنٌ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَمَا إِنَّهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ أَنَا صَاحِبُهُ‏.‏ قَالَ فَخَرَجَ مَعَهُ كُلَّمَا وَقَفَ وَقَفَ مَعَهُ، وَإِذَا أَسْرَعَ أَسْرَعَ مَعَهُ قَالَ فَجُرِحَ الرَّجُلُ جُرْحًا شَدِيدًا، فَاسْتَعْجَلَ الْمَوْتَ، فَوَضَعَ نَصْلَ سَيْفِهِ بِالأَرْضِ وَذُبَابَهُ بَيْنَ ثَدْيَيْهِ، ثُمَّ تَحَامَلَ عَلَى سَيْفِهِ، فَقَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ، فَخَرَجَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ وَمَا ذَاكَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي ذَكَرْتَ آنِفًا أَنَّهُ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، فَأَعْظَمَ النَّاسُ ذَلِكَ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ أَنَا لَكُمْ بِهِ‏.‏ فَخَرَجْتُ فِي طَلَبِهِ، ثُمَّ جُرِحَ جُرْحًا شَدِيدًا، فَاسْتَعْجَلَ الْمَوْتَ، فَوَضَعَ نَصْلَ سَيْفِهِ فِي الأَرْضِ وَذُبَابَهُ بَيْنَ ثَدْيَيْهِ، ثُمَّ تَحَامَلَ عَلَيْهِ، فَقَتَلَ نَفْسَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ ‏"‏ إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعْمَلُ عَمَلَ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فِيمَا يَبْدُو لِلنَّاسِ، وَهْوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعْمَلُ عَمَلَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فِيمَا يَبْدُو لِلنَّاسِ، وَهْوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ ‏"‏‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شُرَيْحُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ بْنِ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي الْبَرَاءُ ـ رضى الله عنه أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمَّا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَعْتَمِرَ أَرْسَلَ إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ يَسْتَأْذِنُهُمْ لِيَدْخُلَ مَكَّةَ، فَاشْتَرَطُوا عَلَيْهِ أَنْ لاَ يُقِيمَ بِهَا إِلاَّ ثَلاَثَ لَيَالٍ، وَلاَ يَدْخُلَهَا إِلاَّ بِجُلُبَّانِ السِّلاَحِ، وَلاَ يَدْعُوَ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا، قَالَ فَأَخَذَ يَكْتُبُ الشَّرْطَ بَيْنَهُمْ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، فَكَتَبَ هَذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا لَوْ عَلِمْنَا أَنَّكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لَمْ نَمْنَعْكَ وَلَبَايَعْنَاكَ، وَلَكِنِ اكْتُبْ هَذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَنَا وَاللَّهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَأَنَا وَاللَّهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ وَكَانَ لاَ يَكْتُبُ قَالَ فَقَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ ‏"‏ امْحُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ وَاللَّهِ لاَ أَمْحَاهُ أَبَدًا‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ فَأَرِنِيهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَرَاهُ إِيَّاهُ، فَمَحَاهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِيَدِهِ، فَلَمَّا دَخَلَ وَمَضَى الأَيَّامُ أَتَوْا عَلِيًّا فَقَالُوا مُرْ صَاحِبَكَ فَلْيَرْتَحِلْ‏.‏ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏ ثُمَّ ارْتَحَلَ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ حُمَيْدَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ أُمَّهُ أُمَّ كُلْثُومٍ بِنْتَ عُقْبَةَ أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّهَا، سَمِعَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ لَيْسَ الْكَذَّابُ الَّذِي يُصْلِحُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ، فَيَنْمِي خَيْرًا، أَوْ يَقُولُ خَيْرًا ‏"

نقض الأيمن

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَعْمَرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَارِثِ، حَدَّثَنَا أَيُّوبُ بْنُ أَبِي تَمِيمَةَ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ زَهْدَمٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا عِنْدَ أَبِي مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيِّ، وَكَانَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ هَذَا الْحَىِّ مِنْ جَرْمٍ إِخَاءٌ، فَأُتِيَ بِطَعَامٍ فِيهِ لَحْمُ دَجَاجٍ، وَفِي الْقَوْمِ رَجُلٌ جَالِسٌ أَحْمَرُ فَلَمْ يَدْنُ مِنْ طَعَامِهِ قَالَ ادْنُ فَقَدْ رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ‏.‏ قَالَ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُهُ أَكَلَ شَيْئًا فَقَذِرْتُهُ، فَحَلَفْتُ أَنْ لاَ آكُلَهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ادْنُ أُخْبِرْكَ ـ أَوْ أُحَدِّثْكَ ـ إِنِّي أَتَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي نَفَرٍ مِنَ الأَشْعَرِيِّينَ، فَوَافَقْتُهُ وَهْوَ غَضْبَانُ، وَهْوَ يَقْسِمُ نَعَمًا مِنْ نَعَمِ الصَّدَقَةِ فَاسْتَحْمَلْنَاهُ فَحَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَحْمِلَنَا، قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا عِنْدِي مَا أَحْمِلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ أُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِنَهْبٍ مِنْ إِبِلٍ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَيْنَ الأَشْعَرِيُّونَ أَيْنَ الأَشْعَرِيُّونَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَعْطَانَا خَمْسَ ذَوْدٍ غُرِّ الذُّرَى، فَلَبِثْنَا غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ، فَقُلْتُ لأَصْحَابِي نَسِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَمِينَهُ، فَوَاللَّهِ لَئِنْ تَغَفَّلْنَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَمِينَهُ لاَ نُفْلِحُ أَبَدًا‏.‏ فَرَجَعْنَا إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا اسْتَحْمَلْنَاكَ، فَحَلَفْتَ أَنْ لاَ تَحْمِلَنَا فَظَنَنَّا أَنَّكَ نَسِيتَ يَمِينَكَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ حَمَلَكُمْ، إِنِّي وَاللَّهِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لاَ أَحْلِفُ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَأَرَى غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا إِلاَّ أَتَيْتُ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ، وَتَحَلَّلْتُهَا ‏"‏‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجُ بْنُ مِنْهَالٍ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَمُرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ لاَ تَسْأَلِ الإِمَارَةَ، فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ وُكِلْتَ إِلَيْهَا، وَإِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ غَيْرِ مَسْأَلَةٍ أُعِنْتَ عَلَيْهَا، وَإِذَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَيْتَ غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا، فَكَفِّرْ يَمِينَكَ، وَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ‏"


الحرب خدعة

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ هَمَّامٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏

"‏ هَلَكَ كِسْرَى ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُ كِسْرَى بَعْدَهُ، وَقَيْصَرٌ لَيَهْلِكَنَّ ثُمَّ لاَ يَكُونُ قَيْصَرٌ بَعْدَهُ، وَلَتُقْسَمَنَّ كُنُوزُهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ‏"

‏‏.‏ وَسَمَّى الْحَرْبَ خَدْعَةً
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَصْرَمَ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنْ هَمَّامِ بْنِ مُنَبِّهٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمَّى النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْحَرْبَ خُدْعَةً‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا صَدَقَةُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، سَمِعَ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ الْحَرْبُ خُدْعَةٌ ‏"

الخدعة ليست محدودة للحرب

أمر محمد بالخدعة بالجهاد والحرب, ولكن أمر به أيضا لإغتيال كعب بن الأشرف, وهو شاعر يهدودي سب محمد بالقصائد.

حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ جَابِرٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ لِكَعْبِ بْنِ الأَشْرَفِ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ أَتُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَأْذَنْ لِي فَأَقُولَ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ قَدْ فَعَلْتُ ‏"‏‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، قَالَ عَمْرٌو سَمِعْتُ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَنْ لِكَعْبِ بْنِ الأَشْرَفِ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ آذَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَامَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَتُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَأْذَنْ لِي أَنْ أَقُولَ شَيْئًا‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَأَتَاهُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الرَّجُلَ قَدْ سَأَلَنَا صَدَقَةً، وَإِنَّهُ قَدْ عَنَّانَا، وَإِنِّي قَدْ أَتَيْتُكَ أَسْتَسْلِفُكَ‏.‏ قَالَ وَأَيْضًا وَاللَّهِ لَتَمَلُّنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّا قَدِ اتَّبَعْنَاهُ فَلاَ نُحِبُّ أَنْ نَدَعَهُ حَتَّى نَنْظُرَ إِلَى أَىِّ شَىْءٍ يَصِيرُ شَأْنُهُ، وَقَدْ أَرَدْنَا أَنْ تُسْلِفَنَا وَسْقًا، أَوْ وَسْقَيْنِ ـ وَحَدَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو غَيْرَ مَرَّةٍ، فَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ وَسْقًا أَوْ وَسْقَيْنِ أَوْ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فِيهِ وَسْقًا أَوْ وَسْقَيْنِ فَقَالَ أُرَى فِيهِ وَسْقًا أَوْ وَسْقَيْنِ ـ فَقَالَ نَعَمِ ارْهَنُونِي‏.‏ قَالُوا أَىَّ شَىْءٍ تُرِيدُ قَالَ فَارْهَنُونِي نِسَاءَكُمْ‏.‏ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نَرْهَنُكَ نِسَاءَنَا وَأَنْتَ أَجْمَلُ الْعَرَبِ قَالَ فَارْهَنُونِي أَبْنَاءَكُمْ‏.‏ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نَرْهَنُكَ أَبْنَاءَنَا فَيُسَبُّ أَحَدُهُمْ، فَيُقَالُ رُهِنَ بِوَسْقٍ أَوْ وَسْقَيْنِ‏.‏ هَذَا عَارٌ عَلَيْنَا، وَلَكِنَّا نَرْهَنُكَ اللأْمَةَ ـ قَالَ سُفْيَانُ يَعْنِي السِّلاَحَ ـ فَوَاعَدَهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُ، فَجَاءَهُ لَيْلاً وَمَعَهُ أَبُو نَائِلَةَ وَهْوَ أَخُو كَعْبٍ مِنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ، فَدَعَاهُمْ إِلَى الْحِصْنِ، فَنَزَلَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ امْرَأَتُهُ أَيْنَ تَخْرُجُ هَذِهِ السَّاعَةَ فَقَالَ إِنَّمَا هُوَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، وَأَخِي أَبُو نَائِلَةَ ـ وَقَالَ غَيْرُ عَمْرٍو قَالَتْ أَسْمَعُ صَوْتًا كَأَنَّهُ يَقْطُرُ مِنْهُ الدَّمُ‏.‏ قَالَ إِنَّمَا هُوَ أَخِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ وَرَضِيعِي أَبُو نَائِلَةَ ـ إِنَّ الْكَرِيمَ لَوْ دُعِيَ إِلَى طَعْنَةٍ بِلَيْلٍ لأَجَابَ قَالَ وَيُدْخِلُ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ مَعَهُ رَجُلَيْنِ ـ قِيلَ لِسُفْيَانَ سَمَّاهُمْ عَمْرٌو قَالَ سَمَّى بَعْضَهُمْ قَالَ عَمْرٌو جَاءَ مَعَهُ بِرَجُلَيْنِ وَقَالَ غَيْرُ عَمْرٍو أَبُو عَبْسِ بْنُ جَبْرٍ، وَالْحَارِثُ بْنُ أَوْسٍ وَعَبَّادُ بْنُ بِشْرٍ قَالَ عَمْرٌو وَجَاءَ مَعَهُ بِرَجُلَيْنِ ـ فَقَالَ إِذَا مَا جَاءَ فَإِنِّي قَائِلٌ بِشَعَرِهِ فَأَشَمُّهُ، فَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُونِي اسْتَمْكَنْتُ مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَدُونَكُمْ فَاضْرِبُوهُ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَرَّةً ثُمَّ أُشِمُّكُمْ‏.‏ فَنَزَلَ إِلَيْهِمْ مُتَوَشِّحًا وَهْوَ يَنْفَحُ مِنْهُ رِيحُ الطِّيبِ، فَقَالَ مَا رَأَيْتُ كَالْيَوْمِ رِيحًا ـ أَىْ أَطْيَبَ ـ وَقَالَ غَيْرُ عَمْرٍو قَالَ عِنْدِي أَعْطَرُ نِسَاءِ الْعَرَبِ وَأَكْمَلُ الْعَرَبِ قَالَ عَمْرٌو فَقَالَ أَتَأْذَنُ لِي أَنْ أَشَمَّ رَأْسَكَ قَالَ نَعَمْ، فَشَمَّهُ، ثُمَّ أَشَمَّ أَصْحَابَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَتَأْذَنُ لِي قَالَ نَعَمْ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا اسْتَمْكَنَ مِنْهُ قَالَ دُونَكُمْ‏.‏ فَقَتَلُوهُ ثُمَّ أَتَوُا النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَأَخْبَرُوهُ‏.‏


الموافقة الزوجية

يقول النبي في هذه الأحاديث ان الرجل يمكنه ان يحصل على الموفقة للزواج من الإمرأة من خلال الخدعة:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا شَيْبَانُ، عَنْ يَحْيَى، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لاَ تُنْكَحُ الأَيِّمُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْمَرَ، وَلاَ تُنْكَحُ الْبِكْرُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْذَنَ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالُوا كَيْفَ إِذْنُهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ أَنْ تَسْكُتَ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنِ احْتَالَ إِنْسَانٌ بِشَاهِدَىْ زُورٍ عَلَى تَزْوِيجِ امْرَأَةٍ ثَيِّبٍ بِأَمْرِهَا، فَأَثْبَتَ الْقَاضِي نِكَاحَهَا إِيَّاهُ، وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَتَزَوَّجْهَا قَطُّ، فَإِنَّهُ يَسَعُهُ هَذَا النِّكَاحُ، وَلاَ بَأْسَ بِالْمُقَامِ لَهُ مَعَهَا‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ تُنْكَحُ الْبِكْرُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْذَنَ، وَلاَ الثَّيِّبُ حَتَّى تُسْتَأْمَرَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ إِذْنُهَا قَالَ ‏"‏ إِذَا سَكَتَتْ ‏"‏‏.‏ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنْ لَمْ تُسْتَأْذَنِ الْبِكْرُ وَلَمْ تَزَوَّجْ‏.‏ فَاحْتَالَ رَجُلٌ فَأَقَامَ شَاهِدَىْ زُورٍ أَنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا بِرِضَاهَا، فَأَثْبَتَ الْقَاضِي نِكَاحَهَا، وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ بَاطِلَةٌ، فَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يَطَأَهَا، وَهْوَ تَزْوِيجٌ صَحِيحٌ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَاصِمٍ عَنْ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ عَنْ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ عَنْ ذَكْوَانَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْبِكْرُ تُسْتَأْذَنُ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الْبِكْرَ تَسْتَحْيِي قَالَ إِذْنُهَا صُمَاتُهَا وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنْ هَوِيَ رَجُلٌ جَارِيَةً يَتِيمَةً أَوْ بِكْرًا فَأَبَتْ فَاحْتَالَ فَجَاءَ بِشَاهِدَيْ زُورٍ عَلَى أَنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَأَدْرَكَتْ فَرَضِيَتْ الْيَتِيمَةُ فَقَبِلَ الْقَاضِي شَهَادَةَ الزُّورِ وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ بِبُطْلَانِ ذَلِكَ حَلَّ لَهُ الْوَطْءُ

صحيح مسلم

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَاصِمٍ عَنْ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ عَنْ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ عَنْ ذَكْوَانَ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْبِكْرُ تُسْتَأْذَنُ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الْبِكْرَ تَسْتَحْيِي قَالَ إِذْنُهَا صُمَاتُهَا وَقَالَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ إِنْ هَوِيَ رَجُلٌ جَارِيَةً يَتِيمَةً أَوْ بِكْرًا فَأَبَتْ فَاحْتَالَ فَجَاءَ بِشَاهِدَيْ زُورٍ عَلَى أَنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَأَدْرَكَتْ فَرَضِيَتْ الْيَتِيمَةُ فَقَبِلَ الْقَاضِي شَهَادَةَ الزُّورِ وَالزَّوْجُ يَعْلَمُ بِبُطْلَانِ ذَلِكَ حَلَّ لَهُ الْوَطْءُ

نقص الأيمن

نقض محمد الأيمن من أ جل مصلحة الأمة ألإسلامية أمر مريديه بنفس الشيء

حَدَّثَنِي حَرْمَلَةُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي حُمَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ، أَنَّ أُمَّهُ أُمَّ كُلْثُومٍ بِنْتَ عُقْبَةَ بْنِ أَبِي مُعَيْطٍ، وَكَانَتْ، مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرَاتِ الأُوَلِ اللاَّتِي بَايَعْنَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَخْبَرَتْهُ أَنَّهَا سَمِعَتْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يَقُولُ ‏

"‏ لَيْسَ الْكَذَّابُ الَّذِي يُصْلِحُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَيَقُولُ خَيْرًا وَيَنْمِي خَيْرًا ‏"

‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ يُرَخَّصُ فِي شَىْءٍ مِمَّا يَقُولُ النَّاسُ كَذِبٌ إِلاَّ فِي ثَلاَثٍ الْحَرْبُ وَالإِصْلاَحُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَحَدِيثُ الرَّجُلِ امْرَأَتَهُ وَحَدِيثُ الْمَرْأَةِ زَوْجَهَا ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنَا خَلَفُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، وَقُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، وَيَحْيَى بْنُ حَبِيبٍ الْحَارِثِيُّ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لِخَلَفٍ - قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ غَيْلاَنَ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بُرْدَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، الأَشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ أَتَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي رَهْطٍ مِنَ الأَشْعَرِيِّينَ نَسْتَحْمِلُهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ وَاللَّهِ لاَ أَحْمِلُكُمْ وَمَا عِنْدِي مَا أَحْمِلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَلَبِثْنَا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ أُتِيَ بِإِبِلٍ فَأَمَرَ لَنَا بِثَلاَثِ ذَوْدٍ غُرِّ الذُّرَى فَلَمَّا انْطَلَقْنَا قُلْنَا - أَوْ قَالَ بَعْضُنَا لِبَعْضٍ - لاَ يُبَارِكُ اللَّهُ لَنَا أَتَيْنَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَسْتَحْمِلُهُ فَحَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَحْمِلَنَا ثُمَّ حَمَلَنَا ‏.‏ فَأَتَوْهُ فَأَخْبَرُوهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَا أَنَا حَمَلْتُكُمْ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ حَمَلَكُمْ وَإِنِّي وَاللَّهِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لاَ أَحْلِفُ عَلَى يَمِينٍ ثُمَّ أَرَى خَيْرًا مِنْهَا إِلاَّ كَفَّرْتُ عَنْ يَمِينِي وَأَتَيْتُ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
حَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مَرْوَانُ بْنُ مُعَاوِيَةَ الْفَزَارِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ أَعْتَمَ رَجُلٌ عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ رَجَعَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ فَوَجَدَ الصِّبْيَةَ قَدْ نَامُوا فَأَتَاهُ أَهْلُهُ بِطَعَامِهِ فَحَلَفَ لاَ يَأْكُلُ مِنْ أَجْلِ صِبْيَتِهِ ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ فَأَكَلَ فَأَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَى غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَلْيَأْتِهَا وَلْيُكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ ‏"
وَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الطَّاهِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي، صَالِحٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَى غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَلْيُكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلْيَفْعَلْ ‏"
وَحَدَّثَنِي زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي أُوَيْسٍ، حَدَّثَنِي عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ الْمُطَّلِبِ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَى غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَلْيَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ وَلْيُكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ ‏"
حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نُمَيْرٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ طَرِيفٍ الْبَجَلِيُّ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لاِبْنِ طَرِيفٍ - قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ فُضَيْلٍ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ بْنِ رُفَيْعٍ، عَنْ تَمِيمٍ الطَّائِيِّ، عَنْ عَدِيٍّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ إِذَا حَلَفَ أَحَدُكُمْ عَلَى الْيَمِينِ فَرَأَى خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَلْيُكَفِّرْهَا وَلْيَأْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ‏"
حَدَّثَنَا شَيْبَانُ بْنُ فَرُّوخَ، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْحَسَنُ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ، بْنُ سَمُرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ سَمُرَةَ لاَ تَسْأَلِ الإِمَارَةَ فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ مَسْأَلَةٍ وُكِلْتَ إِلَيْهَا وَإِنْ أُعْطِيتَهَا عَنْ غَيْرِ مَسْأَلَةٍ أُعِنْتَ عَلَيْهَا وَإِذَا حَلَفْتَ عَلَى يَمِينٍ فَرَأَيْتَ غَيْرَهَا خَيْرًا مِنْهَا فَكَفِّرْ عَنْ يَمِينِكَ وَائْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ‏"

ليس فقط في الحرب


حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْحَنْظَلِيُّ، وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْمِسْوَرِ، الزُّهْرِيُّ كِلاَهُمَا عَنِ ابْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ، - وَاللَّفْظُ لِلزُّهْرِيِّ - حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ عَمْرٍو، سَمِعْتُ جَابِرًا، يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَنْ لِكَعْبِ بْنِ الأَشْرَفِ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ آذَى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَتُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْتُلَهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ائْذَنْ لِي فَلأَقُلْ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَتَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ وَذَكَرَ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الرَّجُلَ قَدْ أَرَادَ صَدَقَةً وَقَدْ عَنَّانَا ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا سَمِعَهُ قَالَ وَأَيْضًا وَاللَّهِ لَتَمَلُّنَّهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ إِنَّا قَدِ اتَّبَعْنَاهُ الآنَ وَنَكْرَهُ أَنْ نَدَعَهُ حَتَّى نَنْظُرَ إِلَى أَىِّ شَىْءٍ يَصِيرُ أَمْرُهُ - قَالَ - وَقَدْ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ تُسْلِفَنِي سَلَفًا قَالَ فَمَا تَرْهَنُنِي قَالَ مَا تُرِيدُ ‏.‏ قَالَ تَرْهَنُنِي نِسَاءَكُمْ قَالَ أَنْتَ أَجْمَلُ الْعَرَبِ أَنَرْهَنُكَ نِسَاءَنَا قَالَ لَهُ تَرْهَنُونِي أَوْلاَدَكُمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ يُسَبُّ ابْنُ أَحَدِنَا فَيُقَالُ رُهِنَ فِي وَسْقَيْنِ مِنْ تَمْرٍ ‏.‏ وَلَكِنْ نَرْهَنُكَ اللأْمَةَ - يَعْنِي السِّلاَحَ - قَالَ فَنَعَمْ ‏.‏ وَوَاعَدَهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُ بِالْحَارِثِ وَأَبِي عَبْسِ بْنِ جَبْرٍ وَعَبَّادِ بْنِ بِشْرٍ قَالَ فَجَاءُوا فَدَعَوْهُ لَيْلاً فَنَزَلَ إِلَيْهِمْ قَالَ سُفْيَانُ قَالَ غَيْرُ عَمْرٍو قَالَتْ لَهُ امْرَأَتُهُ إِنِّي لأَسْمَعُ صَوْتًا كَأَنَّهُ صَوْتُ دَمٍ قَالَ إِنَّمَا هَذَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ وَرَضِيعُهُ وَأَبُو نَائِلَةَ إِنَّ الْكَرِيمَ لَوْ دُعِيَ إِلَى طَعْنَةٍ لَيْلاً لأَجَابَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِنِّي إِذَا جَاءَ فَسَوْفَ أَمُدُّ يَدِي إِلَى رَأْسِهِ فَإِذَا اسْتَمْكَنْتُ مِنْهُ فَدُونَكُمْ قَالَ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ نَزَلَ وَهُوَ مُتَوَشِّحٌ فَقَالُوا نَجِدُ مِنْكَ رِيحَ الطِّيبِ قَالَ نَعَمْ تَحْتِي فُلاَنَةُ هِيَ أَعْطَرُ نِسَاءِ الْعَرَبِ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَتَأْذَنُ لِي أَنْ أَشُمَّ مِنْهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ فَشُمَّ ‏.‏ فَتَنَاوَلَ فَشَمَّ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَتَأْذَنُ لِي أَنْ أَعُودَ قَالَ فَاسْتَمْكَنَ مِنْ رَأْسِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ دُونَكُمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَقَتَلُوهُ ‏.‏

إبن ماجه

ستر ذنوب المسلمين

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَنْ سَتَرَ مُسْلِمًا سَتَرَهُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ ‏"

أبو داود

الحرب خدعة

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ ثَوْرٍ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ كَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا أَرَادَ غَزْوَةً وَرَّى غَيْرَهَا وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ الْحَرْبُ خُدْعَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ لَمْ يَجِئْ بِهِ إِلاَّ مَعْمَرٌ يُرِيدُ قَوْلَهُ ‏"‏ الْحَرْبُ خُدْعَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ بِهَذَا الإِسْنَادِ إِنَّمَا يُرْوَى مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ وَمِنْ حَدِيثِ مَعْمَرٍ عَنْ هَمَّامِ بْنِ مُنَبِّهٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏.‏

السيرة النبوية

ابن إسحاق

فَغُودِرَ مِنهُمْ كَعْبٌ صَرِيعًا … فَذَلَّتْ بَعْدَ مَصْرَعِهِ النَّضِيرُ

عَلى الكَفَّيْنِ ثَمَّ وقَدْ عَلَتْهُ … بِأيْدِينا مُشْهَرَةٌ ذُكُورُ بِأمْرِ مُحَمَّدٍ إذْ دَسَّ لَيْلًا … إلى كَعْبٍ أخا كَعْب يسير فماكره فَأنْزَلَهُ بِمَكْرٍ … ومَحْمُودٌ أخُو ثِقَةٍ جَسُورُ

قالَ ابْنُ هِشامٍ: وهَذِهِ الأبْياتُ فِي قَصِيدَةٍ لَهُ فِي يَوْمِ بَنِي النَّضِيرِ، سَأذْكُرُها إنْ شاءَ اللَّهُ فِي حَدِيثِ ذَلِكَ اليَوْمِ.
ابن هشام (ت 833). سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.57-58.
الَ ابْنُ إسْحَاقَ: وَحَدَّثَنِي عَاصِمُ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ قَتَادَةَ: أَنَّ رَجُلًا مِنْهُمْ كَانَ يُدْعَى حَاطِبَ بْنَ أُمِّيَّةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ، وَكَانَ لَهُ ابْنٌ يُقَالُ لَهُ يَزِيدُ بْنُ حَاطِبٍ، أَصَابَتْهُ جِرَاحَةٌ يَوْمَ أُحُدٍ، فَأُتِيَ بِهِ إلَى دَارِ قَوْمِهِ وَهُوَ بِالْمَوْتِ، فَاجْتَمَعَ إلَيْهِ أَهْلُ الدَّارِ، فَجَعَلَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ يَقُولُونَ لَهُ مِنْ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ: أَبْشِرْ يَا بن حَاطِبٍ بِالْجَنَّةِ، قَالَ: وَكَانَ حَاطِبٌ شَيْخًا قَدْ عَسَا فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، فَنَجَمَ يَوْمئِذٍ نِفَاقُهُ، فَقَالَ: بِأَيِّ شَيْءٍ تُبَشِّرُونَهُ؟ بِجَنَّةٍ مِنْ حَرْمَلٍ [1] ! غَرَرْتُمْ وَاَللَّهِ هَذَا الْغُلَامَ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ.
ابن هشام (ت 833). سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.88.
بِأَمْرِ مُحَمَّدٍ إذْ دَسَّ لَيْلًا ... إلَى كَعْبٍ أَخَا كَعْبٍ يَسِيرُ

فَمَا كَرِهَ فَأَنْزَلَهُ بِمَكْرٍ ... وَمَحْمُودٌ أَخُو ثِقَةٍ جَسُورُ

فَتِلْكَ بَنُو النَّضِيرِ بِدَارِ سَوْءٍ ... أَبَارَهُمْ بِمَا اجْتَرَمُوا الْمُبِيرُ

غَدَاةَ أَتَاهُمْ فِي الزَّحْفِ رَهْوًا ... رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَهْوَ بِهِمْ بَصِيرُ
ابن هشام (ت 833). سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.199.

الطبري

فَحَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سَلَمَةُ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بن إسحاق، قَالَ: كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ بَنِي قَيْنُقَاعَ، أَنَّ رسول الله ص جَمَعَهُمْ بِسُوقِ بَنِي قَيْنُقَاعَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا مَعْشَرَ الْيَهُودِ، احْذَرُوا مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِثْلَ مَا نَزَلَ بِقُرَيْشٍ مِنَ النِّقْمَةِ، وَأَسْلِمُوا، فَإِنَّكُمْ قَدْ عَرَفْتُمْ أَنِّي نَبِيٌّ مُرْسَلٌ تَجِدُونَ ذَلِكَ فِي كِتَابِكُمْ، وَفِي عَهْدِ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ قَالُوا: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، إِنَّكَ تَرَى أَنَّا كَقَوْمِكَ! لا يَغُرَّنَّكَ أَنَّكَ لَقِيتَ قَوْمًا لا عِلْمَ لَهُمْ بِالْحَرْبِ، فَأَصَبْتَ مِنْهُمْ فُرْصَةً، إِنَّا وَاللَّهِ لَئِنْ حَارَبْتَنَا لَتَعْلَمَنَّ أَنَّا نَحْنُ النَّاسُ.
الطبري، أبو جعفر (ت 923). تاريخ الرسل والملوك. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.179.
ثُمَّ إنَّ نُعَيْمَ بْنَ مَسْعُودِ بْنِ عامِرِ بْنِ أُنَيْفِ بْنِ ثَعْلَبَةَ بن قنفذ بن هلال ابن خلافه بْنِ أشْجَعَ بْنِ رَيْثِ بْنِ غَطَفانَ أتى رسول الله ص، فَقالَ: يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إنِّي قَدْ أسْلَمْتُ، وإنَّ قَوْمِي لَمْ يَعْلَمُوا بِإسْلامِي، فَمُرْنِي بِما شئت فقال له رسول الله ص: إنَّما أنْتَ فِينا رَجُلٌ واحِدٌ، فَخَذِّلْ عَنّا إنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ، فَإنَّ الحَرْبَ خَدْعَةٌ.
الطبري، أبو جعفر (ت 923). تاريخ الرسل والملوك. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.2، ص.578
فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وأثْنى عَلَيْهِ بِالَّذِي هُوَ لَهُ أهْلٌ، ثُمَّ قالَ: يا مَعْشَرَ الأنْصارِ، ما قالَةٌ بَلَغَتْنِي عَنْكُمْ، ومَوْجِدَةٌ وجَدْتُمُوها فِي أنْفُسِكُمْ ألَمْ آتِكُمْ ضُلّالّا فَهَداكُمُ اللَّهُ، وعالَةً فَأغْناكُمُ اللَّهُ، وأعْداءً فَألَّفَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِكُمْ! قالُوا: بَلى، لِلَّهِ ولِرَسُولِهِ المَنُّ والفَضْلُ! فَقالَ: ألا تُجِيبُونِي يا مَعْشَرَ الأنْصارِ! قالُوا: وبِماذا نُجِيبُكَ يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، لِلَّهِ ولِرَسُولِهِ المَنُّ والفَضْلُ! قالَ: أما واللَّهِ لَوْ شِئْتُمْ لَقُلْتُمْ فَصَدَقْتُمْ، ولَصُدِّقْتُمْ، أتَيْتَنا مُكَذَّبًا فَصَدَّقْناكَ، ومَخْذُولا فَنَصَرْناكَ، وطَرِيدًا فَآوَيْناكَ، وعائِلا فَآسَيْناكَ،
الطبري، أبو جعفر (ت 923). تاريخ الرسل والملوك. المكتبة الشاملة. ج.3، ص.93

العلماء

العلماء الكلاسيكيون

الفقه

Imam Abu Hammid Ghazali says: "Speaking is a means to achieve objectives. If a praiseworthy aim is attainable through both telling the truth and lying, it is unlawful to accomplish through lying because there is no need for it. When it is possible to achieve such an aim by lying but not by telling the truth, it is permissible to lie if attaining the goal is permissible (N:i.e. when the purpose of lying is to circumvent someone who is preventing one from doing something permissible), and obligatory to lie if the goal is obligatory... it is religiously precautionary in all cases to employ words that give a misleading impression..."
Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law
Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Edited and Translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller (p. 745, r8.2)
It is permissible to swear at Rasulullah when one is under duress and to recite the Kalima of Kufr in the fear of losing property or of getting murdered provided that the heart is at comfort.
Chapter "Al Dheema"
Nizam al-Din al-Shashi, Usul al-Shashi (p. 114)

التفسير

If you [Muslims] are under their [infidels'] authority, fearing for yourselves, behave loyally to them, with your tongue, while harboring inner animosity for them. … Allah has forbidden believers from being friendly or on intimate terms with the infidels in place of believers — except when infidels are above them [in authority]. In such a scenario, let them act friendly towards them.
Jami' al-Bayan 'an ta'wil ayi'l-Qur'an al-Ma'ruf: Tafsir at-Tabari
Abu Ja'far Muhammad at-Tabari, Beirut: Dar Ihya' at-Turath al-'Arabi, 2001 (vol. 3, p. 267)
Let not the believers take the disbelievers as patrons, rather than, that is, instead of, the believers — for whoever does that, that is, [whoever] takes them as patrons, does not belong to, the religion of, God in anyway — unless you protect yourselves against them, as a safeguard (tuqātan, ‘as a safeguard’, is the verbal noun from taqiyyatan), that is to say, [unless] you fear something, in which case you may show patronage to them through words, but not in your hearts: this was before the hegemony of Islam and [the dispensation] applies to any individual residing in a land with no say in it.
Surah 3 Ayah 28
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, 2012 Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
(unless you indeed fear a danger from them) meaning, except those believers who in some areas or times fear for their safety from the disbelievers. In this case, such believers are allowed to show friendship to the disbelievers outwardly, but never inwardly. For instance, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ad-Darda' said, "We smile in the face of some people although our hearts curse them. Al-Bukhari said that Al-Hasan said, "The Tuqyah is allowed until the Day of Resurrection.
Undoubtedly, there is no harm in practicing Taqiyyah if a believer is caught up between non-believers and his life or property is under threat from them. In such circumstances he should conceal his enmity from them. Infact, he should talk in such a manner that his words should show passion. His hear should not confirm what he is saying. Taqiyyah does not have an effect on one's heart; it only has an external effect.
Surah 3. Al-i'Imran, Ayah 28
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Tafseer Kabeer, published in Istanbul (vol. 2, p. 626)
The non-believers once caught Ammar bin Yasir and they forced him to say praise their false gods and to condemn Prophet Muhammad. They forced him to an extent that Ammar bin Yasir gave in an exceeded to their demands. After that, when he returned to the Prophet Mohammed, Ammar narrated the whole story to him. Prophet Muhammad asked him, how do you feel in your heart? To which Ammar replied, I am fully content with Allah's religion in my heart. To this Prophet Mohammed said, if non-believers ask you to say the same again, say it. At which time the following ayah was descended:

"Anyone who after accepting faith in Allah utters disbelief (save under compulsion and even then his heart remains firm in faith) on them is Wrath from Allah and theirs will be a dreadful Penalty"
Surah 16. An-Nahl, Ayah 106
Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, Al-Durr Al-Manthur Fi Tafsir Bil-Ma'thur, Cairo edition (vol. 4, p. 132)
All scholars of the Muslim Ummah agree on the fact that at times when one is forced, one can denounce Islam.
Tafsir Ma'alim at-Tanzeel
Husain bin Masood al-Baghawi, published in Bombay (vol. 2, P. 214)

العلماء الحدثاء

الفتاوى

Question:

In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

Peace, blessings and mercy of Allah be upon you.

My father has an illicit relationship with a woman other than my mother and he refuses to marry her and he spends on her abundantly, and at the same time, he is tightfisted on his house. My mother knew what he spends on her, without his knowledge, through reading a list he keeps in his pocket. She used tricks to make sedition between them by claiming that someone called us and said that he spent that sum and that sum on that woman. My father asked my testimony and I supported my mother’s claim. Are my mother and I sinful by lying on my father, or is it considered “permissible” lying? How do you counsel us to solve this problem? Jazakum Allahu Khairan.

Answer:

In the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful

Praise be to Allah, prayers and peace be upon His kind Messenger, his family members, companions and followers.

Lying is a grave sin and a bad conduct that should not be resorted to by anyone who believes in Allah and in the Day of Judgment, except under the compelling strokes of necessity, because, as the prophet, prayers and peace of Allah be upon him, said: “That lying leads to dissolution, and that dissolution leads to hellfire, and a person is always lying and seeks lying until he is registered unto Allah that he is a liar”. If someone is compelled to lying, he can indirectly say something that his listener can understand something else. However, your father should be reached out by a sincere advice that he should fear Allah and that his relationship with that woman is against his reputation, his old age, and his religion, that would expose him to Allah’s wrath and contempt. I would say to him what the Arab poet has said: “Suffice it to you old age and Islam to restrain you”.

As for your mother, it would be better for her that she would approach your father in their privacy and tell him that she knows what is going on between him and that woman, and that she is patient on that situation in consideration for the family and intimate ties between them and that her patience has reached a warning limit of no more if he goes on like this, and that she reminds him of Allah and frightens him of His wrath and contempt, that he may come back to his senses and sincerely repent to Allah. Allah knows best.
[[[:قالب:Reference archive]] Lying for repulsing evil]
Dr. Salah Al-Sawy, AMJA Online, Question ID: 937, November 17, 2005
Shaykh al-Shanqeeti (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
In this verse [al-Maa’idah 5:51] Allaah tells us that whoever takes the Jews and Christians as friends is one of them because of his taking them as friends... [Aal ‘Imraan 3:28]
This verse explains all the verses quoted above which forbid taking the kaafirs as friends in general terms. What that refers to is in cases where one has a choice, but in cases of fear and taqiyah it is permissible to make friends with them, as much as is essential to protect oneself against their evil. That is subject to the condition that one’s faith should not be affected by that friendship and the one who is behaves in that manner out of necessity is not one who behaves in that manner out of choice.
It may be understood from the apparent meaning of these verses that the one who deliberately takes the kuffaar as friends by choice and because he likes them, is one of them.

Adwa’ al-Bayaan, 2/98,99
. . .

Shaykh Muhammad al-Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on mixing with the kuffaar and treating them kindly hoping that they will become Muslim. He replied:

Undoubtedly the Muslim is obliged to hate the enemies of Allaah and to disavow them, because this is the way of the Messengers and their followers. [Quotes al-Mumtahanah 60:4 & al-Mujaadilah 58:22]
Based on this, it is not permissible for a Muslim to feel any love in his heart towards the enemies of Allaah who are in fact his enemies too. [Quotes al-Mumtahanah 60:1]
But if a Muslim treats them with kindness and gentleness in the hope that they will become Muslim and will believe, there is nothing wrong with that, because it comes under the heading of opening their hearts to Islam. But if he despairs of them becoming Muslim, then he should treat them accordingly. This is something that is discussed in detail by the scholars, especially in the book Ahkaam Ahl al-Dhimmah by Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him).
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 3, question no. 389.
The Arabic word tawriyah [translated here as deliberate ambiguity] means to conceal something.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes al-Ma'idah 5:31 & al-A’raaf 7:26]

With regard to the meaning in sharee’ah (religious) terminology, it refers to someone who says something that may appear to have one meaning to the listener but the speaker intends something different that may be understood from these words. For example, he says, “I do not have a dirham in my pocket,” and that is understood to mean that he does not have any money at all, when what he means is that he does not have a dirham but he may have a dinar, for example. This is called ambiguity or dissembling.

Deliberate ambiguity is regarded as a legitimate solution for avoiding difficult situations that a person may find himself in when someone asks him about something, and he does not want to tell the truth on the one hand, and does not want to lie, on the other.

Deliberate ambiguity is permissible if it is necessary or if it serves a shar’i (religious) interest, but it is not appropriate to do it a great deal so that it becomes a habit, or to use it to gain something wrongfully or to deprive someone of his rights.

Al-Nawawi said:

The scholars said: If that is needed to serve some legitimate shar’i interest that outweighs the concern about misleading the person to whom you are speaking, or it is needed for a reason that cannot be achieved without lying, then there is nothing wrong with using deliberate ambiguity as an acceptable alternative. But if there is no interest to be served and no pressing need, then it is makrooh (disliked), but is not haram (impermissible). If it is a means of taking something wrongfully or depriving someone of their rights, then it is haram in that case. This is the guideline in this matter. Al-Adhkaar.

Some scholars were of the view that it is haram to resort to deliberate ambiguity if there is no reason or need to do so. This was the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him). See al-Ikhtiyaaraat.

There are situations in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) taught that we may use deliberate ambiguity, for example:

If a man loses his wudoo (ablution) whilst praying in congregation, what should he do in this embarrassing situation?

The answer is that he should place his hand over his nose and leave.

The evidence for that is the report narrated from ‘Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “If anyone of you breaks his wudoo whilst praying, let him hold his nose and leave.” Sunan Abi Dawood.

Al-Teebi said: The command to hold his nose is so that it will look as if he has a nosebleed. This is not a lie, rather it is a kind of ambiguity. This concession is granted so that the Shaytan will not trick him into staying put because of feeling embarrassed in front of people.

Mirqaah al-Mafaateeh Sharh Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh.

This is a kind of ambiguity that is permitted, so as to avoid any embarrassment and so that whoever sees him leaving will think that he has a nosebleed.

Similarly If a Muslim faces a difficult situation where he needs to say what is against the truth in order to protect himself or someone who is innocent, or to save himself from serious trouble, is there a way for him to escape the situation without lying or falling into sin?

Yes, there is a legal way and a permissible escape that one can make use of if necessary. It is equivocation or indirectness in speech. Imam al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) entitled a chapter of his Saheeh: “Indirect speech is a safe way to avoid a lie”. (Saheeh al-Bukhari, Kitaab al-Adab (Book of Manners)).

Equivocation means saying something which has a closer meaning that the hearer will understand, but it also has a remote meaning which what is actually meant and is linguistically correct. The condition for this is that whatever is said should not present a truth as falsity and vice versa. The following are examples of such statements used by the salaf (pious predecessors) and early imams (religious leaders), and collected by Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in his book Ighaathat al-Lahfaan:

It was reported about Hammad (may Allah have mercy on him), if someone came that he did not want to sit with, he would say as if in pain: “My tooth, my tooth!” Then the boring person whom he did not like would leave him alone.

Imam Sufyan Al-Thawri was brought to the khaleefah al-Mahdi, who liked him, but when he wanted to leave, the khaleefah told him he had to stay. Al-Thawri swore that he would come back. He then went out, leaving his shoes at the door. After some time he came back, took his shoes and went away. The khaleefah asked about him, and was told that he had sworn to come back, so he had come back and taken his shoes.

Imam Ahmad was in his house, and some of his students, including al-Mirwadhi, were with him. Someone came along, asking for al-Mirwadhi from outside the house, but Imam Ahmad did not want him to go out, so he said: “Al-Mirwadhi is not here, what would he be doing here?” whilst putting his finger in the palm of his other hand, and the person outside could not see what he was doing.

Other examples of equivocation or indirectness in speech include the following:

If someone asks you whether you have seen so-and-so, and you are afraid that if you tell the questioner about him this would lead to harm, you can say “ma ra aytuhu”, meaning that you have not cut his lung, because this is a correct meaning in Arabic [“ma ra aytuhu” usually means “I have not seen him,” but can also mean “I have not cut his lung”]; or you could deny having seen him, referring in your heart to a specific time and place where you have not seen him. If someone asks you to swear an oath that you will never speak to so-and-so, you could say, “Wallaahi lan ukallumahu”, meaning that you will not wound him, because “kalam” can also mean “wound” in Arabic [as well as “speech”]. Similarly, if a person is forced to utter words of kufr (disbelief) and is told to deny Allah, it is permissible for him to say “Kafartu bi’l-laahi”, meaning “I denounce the playboy” [which sounds the same as the phrase meaning “I deny Allah.”]

(Ighaathat al-Lahfaan by Ibn al-Qayyim. See also the section on equivocation (ma’aareed) in Al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah by Ibn Muflih).

However, one should be cautious that the use of such statements is restricted only to situations of great difficulty, otherwise:

Excessive use of it may lead to lying.

One may lose good friends, because they would always be in doubt as to what is meant.

If the person to whom such a statement is given comes to know that the reality was different from what he was told, and he was not aware that the person was engaging in deliberate ambiguity or equivocation, he would consider that person to be a liar. This goes against the principle of protecting one’s honour by not giving people cause to doubt one’s integrity.

The person who uses such a technique frequently may become proud of his ability to take advantage of people.

End quote. From Madha taf’al fi’l-haalaat al-aatiyah (What to do in the following situations)?
Telling half-truths is permissible under the following conditions:

1 - there is a legitimate reason for doing so If there is no legitimate (under the shari`ah) reason, then it is not permissible. [Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar 9/613.]

2 - the 'hidden' true meaning is not too far fetched

3 - the statement does not lead to someone else suffering injustice or losing one of their rights.

4 - one does not swear to the half-truth in the name of Allah [Ibn Muflih, al-Adab al-Shar`iyyah]

التفسير

..the purpose is to stay safe from any possible harm coming through them. The words (“unless you have a fear of them”) appearing in this verse means that…friendship with disbelievers is not permissible except when you are in a situation where you want to defend yourself against them.
Surah Al-Imran 3:28-30
Muhammad Shafi Usmani, Maarif ul Quran (p. 57)
That is: If the faithful are trapped in the midst of the infidels and if they, as a mean of safeguard, take them as their friends for appearances sake, then there is nothing wrong in it; but here emphasised that we should fear Allah and not indulge in doing a thing which would harm the interests of the religion...
Surah 3 Ayah 28
Shams Pirzada, Dawat ul Quran, trans. Abdul Karim Shaikh
"(3:28) The believers may not take the unbelievers for their allies in preference to those who believe. Whoever does this has nothing to do with Allah unless he does so in order to protect himself from their wrong-doing..."

This means that it is lawful for a believer, helpless in the grip of the enemies of Islam and in imminent danger of severe wrong and persecution, to keep his faith concealed and to behave in such a manner as to create the impression that he is on the same side as his enemies. A person whose Muslim identity is discovered is permitted to adopt a friendly attitude owards the unbelievers in order to save his life. If he considers himself incapable of enduring the excesses to which he may be subjected, he may even state that he is not a believer.

"...Allah warns you to beware of Him for it is to Allah that you will return."

One should not be overwhelmed by the fear of other human beings to the extent of losing the fear of God. Human beings can harm a man but the most they can do is to ruin his transient, earthly life. God, on the other hand, can subject him to everlasting torment. If one is constrained in extraordinary circumstances to resort to a prudent concealment of faith (taqiyah) in order to save one's life, this concealment should remain within reasonable limits. The most one is permitted to do is to protect one's life and property without jeopardizing either the interests of Islam or of the Muslim community as a whole, and without causing loss of life and property to other Muslims. One must never allow saving one's own life to lead to the propagation of unbelief at the expense of Islam and to the dominance of unbelievers over Muslims. Here the believers are warned that, no matter how dangerous the circumstances surrounding them, they cannot escape God's reproach if they give substantial aid to those rebelling against Him, and cause any harm to God's chosen religion, to the community of believers or to any individual believer. For, it is to God that one will ultimately return for reckoning.
[[[:قالب:Reference archive]] Surah 3 Ayah 28]
Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Tafhim al-Qur'an

المتفرقات


I say our scholars agree on the fact that when needed, telling a lie is allowed, and this is Taqiyyah. But if we name this Taqiyyah, a lot of the scholars raise an objection, since Shi'as use this term. So the difference between Shi'a and Sunni is only the word difference.
Muhammad bin Aqeel Shaafiyee, al-Nasa'ih al-Kaafiyah (p. 109), Bombay edition
All the scholars agree on the fact that if a cruel man comes to kill a person who is hiding, or comes to wrongfully take someone else's possessions, and asks for information about that (possession), then it is Wajib on everyone to conceal it and deny knowledge of its whereabouts. This is not only permissible but Wajib because its purpose is to protect an oppressed one from the grasp of an oppressor
Al-Nawawi, Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim (vol. 2, p. 106-266), published in Luknow
It should be known that Taqiyyah is permissible, proven from the Qur'an one such verse is ," Let not the believers take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah: except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah. " and the other statement of Allah [swt]:

“He who disbelieves in Allah after his having believed, not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens (his) breast to disbelief-- on these is the wrath of Allah, and they shall have a grievous chastisement.”

The definition of Taqiyyah is to oppose one’s life, property or honor and this can be of two types. Firstly, the enmity may be based on religion of belief, like a Kaafir and Muslim. Secondly, it may be based on the worldly things, like property, place, women and other belongings. Thus, Taqqiyah is also of two kinds
Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi, Tauhfa Ithna Ashariyya, p. 337
Taqiyyah is allowed at times of fear, and Tabbara said that our companions say that in times of need, Taqiyyah is allowed; rather, in some cases to create an environment of unity, it can also be used. And all the narrations which are present speak for it.
Ahmed Fehmi Mesri, Hashia al-Mihal wa An-Nahal (vol. 1, p. 195), published in Cairo
Similarly, Kufr is the worst act. But when one is forced to commit it through a threat of murder then it is permissible to adopt Taqiyyah and recite the Kalima of kufr; and such a person should not be deemed a Kaffir. Verily, the Shari'a has deemed it a favorable act to recite Kalima of Kufr under Taqqiyah
Abu Shakoor Saalmi, al-Tamheed fi Bayan al-Tauwheed (Ch. 1, pp. 18-19), published in Delhi

External Links

  • Lying and Taqiyya - Answering Islam
  • [[[:قالب:Reference archive]] How Taqiyya Alters Islam's Rules of War Defeating Jihadist Terrorism] - Raymond Ibrahim, Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2010, pp. 3-13